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App Culture: Set on Mindfulness of Mental Health

Never before have we seen such a surge in apps focused specifically on mental health, mindfulness, and stress reduction.
The popular meditation app Headspace and our Apples App of the Year, Calm, both had major updates this year that expanded their breadth considerably, taking on topics such as mindfulness for children and better sleep. The creators of the new app Lake: Artists’ Coloring Books tackle destressing a bit more actively. It offers an ever-changing selection of drawings, created by burgeoning illustrators and artists, that you can color in—which is perhaps the most accessible meditation of all.
Several apps leverage the latest research on cognitive behavioral therapy to help address larger issues. Although the apps are not a substitute for professional treatment, they do put a host of resources at your fingertips. Pacifica provides a self-help toolkit and access to a support group whenever you need it, while Joyable lets you work with a trained coach via text, email, or phone.

 

Letter from our Executive Director

2017 has been a dynamic year in mental health. For some, it feels like both a lifetime and a single second has passed since the year started back in January.

Thanks to you, some big steps have been made in bringing mental health care in the United States into the 21st Century.

We couldn’t have made progress happen within Higher Education without your generous support.

We maintained coverage for mental health and substance use benefits thanks to the thousands of you who called, emailed, and sent letters to your legislators telling them to make mental health a priority.

Our high student affairs policy standards let peers show their expertise and experience, which opens new career paths and more opportunities to transform lives and services.

This is all thanks to you – with you, we can change the trajectory of thousands of young lives.

We cannot thank you enough for your support. Griffin Ambitions Ltd and Vital Time will not settle for the answers of the past in mental health care and treatment.

With your help, we can take charge of a brighter future—where there is always hope.

To all those preparing for the celebrations, happy holidays from all of us here at Griffin Ambitions!

Be well,

 

Jacob M. Griffin

 

Most Y’all Missed This ’13 Reasons Why’ Detail & It Sheds Insight Into Alex’s Story

If you haven’t finished 13 Reasons Why, exit out of this post right now because I am about to end all debates about the last episode.

Based on the best-selling novel of the same name, 13 Reasons Why is proving to be one of the best and most socially aware young adult series in recent memory. It accurately shows what high school parties are like, using the kind of language high schoolers truly use (yes, F-bombs come out in droves), and not pulling any punches on more sensitive material. From almost everyone who has seen the show (many critics excluded), it is a poignant, incredibly well-done series that hits home pretty hard.

Seeing as it’s been several weeks since the show aired, you’ve probably either finished the series or got most of the way through it, which is what brought you here. It was a compelling show that made you want to get to the end just because of what it was talking about. For the same reasons, you probably had a hard time finishing it. However, if you weren’t paying enough attention while watching, you’ll not have noticed this one moment that changes the show’s entire narrative completely.

'13 Reasons Why' [Credit: Netflix]
’13 Reasons Why’ [Credit: Netflix]

It’s All In The Little Details

Unlike Clay Jensen, I’m not going to drag this out and make you wait 13 hours to know the whole story of what happened to Hannah Baker. During the 13th and final episode of the series, the Baker family finally has their deposition against the school. Several of the students from the tapes are called in and we get to see a few of their recordings as they’re sitting there being interviewed.

If you look to the bottom left corner of the screen, you’ll see the date that the tapes were recorded. Taking into account that the show was released on March 31st, 2017, this date changes everything about the show.

Zach Dempsey's deposition. '13 Reasons Why' [Credit: Netflix]
Zach Dempsey’s deposition. ’13 Reasons Why’ [Credit: Netflix]

November 10th, 2017: None of this has happened yet. OK, well some of it has.

The Story So Far

Hannah went to the park with Justin Foley, sparking that ill-fated picture of her on the slide. Hannah met Jessica Davis and Alex Standall; they started going to Monet’s every day to get hot chocolate and whatever the hell Alex was drinking. The three of them had their falling out due to Alex’s stupid list. Hannah and Courtney Crimson found out that Tyler Down was Hannah’s stalker. Courtney painted Hannah as a lesbian to salvage her own reputation. Hannah went on a pretty crummy date with Marcus Cole, after which Zach tried to make things better, but it ended poorly for both Hannah and him.

The rest of it probably hasn’t happened yet, however. Now, I’m not entirely sure about whether Ryan Shaver’s tape happened, but the rest of it certainly hasn’t.

This means that Bryce Walker hadn’t raped Jessica, Sheri Holland hadn’t knocked over the stop sign that led to Jeff Atkins’s fatal car crash, Clay and Hannah hadn’t hooked up — resulting in Hannah being unable to show her true feelings for him out of past traumas, Bryce hadn’t raped Hannah yet, and Mr. Porter hadn’t told Hannah to just let go of what happened to her and act like it never happened.

Giving life one last chance. '13 Reasons Why' [Credit: Netflix]
Giving life one last chance. ’13 Reasons Why’ [Credit: Netflix]

But the biggest, most important takeaway from knowing this is that Hannah is still here. We still have the chance to help her and prevent this from happening. We can still save Hannah. There is still time.

When it comes to suicide, at any age, those closest to the victim wished they had seen the signs and had the time to stop it. This theme is very evident throughout the series, as every character wishes they had only known what could cause Hannah to want to end her life. As the show points out, it can be obvious that someone is depressed and looking to find a way to put an end to their pain (evident from both Hannah and Alex). However, it is difficult to see it in those closest to you, which is why everyone was so blindsided by what had happened.

The biggest message that the show is trying to push is that we don’t know what’s going on in each other’s lives. We just have to be there for each other and support each other not matter what rumors we hear. There’s too much hate in the world, especially in high school. We need to overcome it and learn to appreciate each other for who we are.

Screen Shot 2017-04-15 at 9.52.51 AM
A worthy share for social media! Don’t forget to tag @GriffAmbitions

We often don’t know if someone is depressed, no matter how evident the signs may be. However, if we can be there for each other, we can prevent something like this from happening again. And, in the case of Hannah Baker, we can prevent it from happening altogether.

With this in mind, it’s interesting to note that Jay Asher’s original ending included Hannah Baker actually surviving her suicide attempt. This original ending was actually included in the 10th anniversary edition of the novel released last December. Which was coincidentally released mere months before the Netflix series aired.

Now I’m not saying that’s suspicious or anything, but maybe, just maybe, it was released around the same time as the Netflix series with the intent to continue the series for a second season – or maybe in another format altogether. Assuming the series does well (as most Netflix series do) and with this small little detail snuck in the finale, the creators could easily turn around and say that Hannah never did kill herself and instead give us a sequel following Hannah and company in a plotline in which she’s still alive.

Mariah Carey begins new conversation with hopes of normalizing Bipolar Disorder

Mariah Carey opened up about living with bipolar disorder in an article for People magazine on Wednesday. This is the first time the singer has spoken publicly about her diagnosis.

https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fmariahcarey%2Fposts%2F10156269718892766&width=500

Carey told People she was diagnosed in 2001, but “didn’t want to believe it.” After experiencing what she called the “hardest couple of years I’ve been through,” she finally reached out for treatment.

Until recently I lived in denial and isolation and in constant fear someone would expose me. It was too heavy a burden to carry and I simply couldn’t do that anymore. I sought and received treatment, I put positive people around me and I got back to doing what I love — writing songs and making music.

When she first experienced symptoms, Carey said she thought she had a sleep disorder — but soon realized her trouble sleeping was actually due to hypomania, characteristic of bipolar II disorder.

It wasn’t normal insomnia and I wasn’t lying awake counting sheep. I was working and working and working … I was irritable and in constant fear of letting people down. It turns out that I was experiencing a form of mania. Eventually I would just hit a wall. I guess my depressive episodes were characterized by having very low energy. I would feel so lonely and sad — even guilty that I wasn’t doing what I needed to be doing for my career.

Fans on Twitter reacted positively to the news of Carey’s diagnosis, congratulating her for speaking out:

maria yagoda

@mariayagoda

brave as heck. her courage will save lives. 👑 https://twitter.com/people/status/984028774714003458 

maria yagoda

@mariayagoda

mariah carey’s honesty about finding medication & treatment is SO important in a world where ppl with mental illnesses are doubly stigmatized for taking meds. http://people.com/music/mariah-carey-bipolar-disorder-diagnosis-exclusive/?xid=socialflow_twitter_peoplemag&utm_campaign=peoplemagazine&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com 

Mariah Carey: My Battle with Bipolar Disorder

In this week’s PEOPLE cover story, Mariah Carey reveals for the first time her battle with bipolar disorder

people.com

Aadam@AadamDunn

This is so brave, imagine if Mariah Carey said she had bipolar in 2001 she would’ve been written off. Shows how much things have changed in 17 Years. https://twitter.com/mariahcarey/status/984025281957629953 

Olivia@selfloveliv

So @MariahCarey has come forward with her diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder, and I feel really good about this because it starts a conversation. Let’s end the stigma and help raise awareness for mental health!
Go Mariah!! ❤️

Carey said she’s in a good place right now, although she knows how isolating the stigma of mental illness can be. “I’m hopeful we can get to a place where the stigma is lifted from people going through anything alone,” she said. “It does not have to define you and I refuse to allow it to define me or control me.”

Archived: walkout support letter

We are sending this to show our support for those students who walked out of class as a part of the National School Walkout on March 14. We believe that it is these students’ First Amendment right of free speech and right to peacefully assemble to walk out and fight for what they believe in.

This right was affirmed in the Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, where Justice Abe Fortas read, in the majority opinion, that students did not lose their First Amendment right to freedom of speech when they enter the school building. This opinion also stated that students have the right to peacefully protest as long as it did not interfere with the “operation of the school.”

We do not believe that this 17 minutes interfered with the education of these students, in fact we believe it only enhanced this education. The point of the public school system is to teach students to become good citizens and to be active in our political system. There is no greater way to be active in our political system than to protest and speak up for what you believe in. We believe by telling these students that they could not partake in the walkout you are telling them that peaceful protest is not OK and that they do not have their First Amendment rights in your school.

To be clear, we are not pressing any political opinion as it comes to gun control or school safety with this letter, we are simply stating that we believe that you, as a school, are infringing on the First Amendment rights of students as affirmed in the case Tinker v. Des Moines.

Why gay porn is helping to fuel body dissatisfaction for gay men

Men are resorting to drastic measures to live up to an unrealistic body-image ideal, with pornography fuelling their desire for perfection.

Gay men especially are vulnerable to body dissatisfaction which can bring with it a psychological disorder called muscle dysmorphia — the flipside of anorexia — a condition characterised by obsessive worrying over a perceived small body.

Research shows that users of Australia’s most commonly injected drug — anabolic steroids — often showed signs of muscle dysmorphia.

Dr Scott Griffiths, an early career fellow from the National Health and Medical Research Council, said while not all steroid users had a psychological disorder, it was definitely a “red flag” for the screening of muscle dysmorphia.

Although there are no prevalence statistics for muscle dysmorphia, Dr Griffiths said half the men with muscle dysmorphia used steroids.

PHOTO Seeking perfection: Paul started weightlifting 10 years ago.

ABC CENTRAL VICTORIA: LARISSA ROMENSKY

Dr Griffiths said usage of steroids was alarming.

”It’s ahead of methamphetamine and heroin and all the others,” Dr Griffiths said.

“It’s not like we’ve had a current explosion of athletes in the country, we just have more and more men who are unhappy about their appearance, and a lot of those will have muscle dysmorphia.”

Pressure in the gay community

Dr Griffiths said there had been numerous studies on the effect of idealised images of women on the female population.

But he said the use of pornography among men, especially gay men, had not been so well researched.

Dr Griffiths and his associates recently released the results of a nationwide survey of 2,733 gay men across Australia and New Zealand and found that increased pornography use was associated with body dissatisfaction.

“The more you are exposed to pornography, the more likely you are to have eating disorder symptoms,” Dr Griffiths said.

He said those surveyed said dissatisfaction included concerns about height, muscularity and body fat and also more frequent thoughts about steroid use.

We asked if you felt pressured to increase your body mass in order to live up to unrealistic body portrayals.

Idealised masculine imagery

The hypothesis of the survey included the distinction between amateur pornography with more “regular people” to more professional pornography characterised by unrealistic bodies.

“The strength of that relationship [between anabolic steroid use and pornography] is stronger if you’re watching more professional than amateur pornography,” Dr Griffiths said.

He said the pressure was greater in the gay male community as it was widely acknowledged appearance and bodily standards were of more importance compared to the heterosexual community.

“In part, it might reflect that men more than women place a premium on attractiveness as an indicator of preference,” Dr Griffiths said.

“Attractiveness ranks relatively higher for men than it does for women.”

Paul, a regular gym goer, agreed that there was a lot of pressure in the gay community to conform to an idealised masculine image.

PHOTO Paul sees a therapist and listens closely to his trainer of 10 years, John.

ABC CENTRAL VICTORIA: LARISSA ROMENSKY

“Anyone would know that a lot of the gay community here in Australia and pretty much all over the world, is very aesthetic,” he said.

”It’s all about body image, body type, what he looks like, muscles all that sort of stuff.

“Part of me is trying to fit into that.”

Paul [not his real name] said single gay men often used dating apps such as Grindr, but 40 per cent of the images on the site were of faceless, buffed torsos.

“They would receive a lot more attention than a photo with a face,” said the 39-year-old.

Steroid use comes with a cost

He admits to watching amateur gay porn every day when he was younger, and said he struggled to look at himself in the mirror.

When he finally came out in his late 20s after years of suppressing his identity because of his strict Greek background, he found it liberating.

But he also discovered a new kind of stress — the pressure in the male, gay community to look a certain way.

It continues to this day.

For the past three to four years he has upped the ante in his weightlifting regime, including a six-month stint a year ago injecting prescribed anabolic steroids.

“I went to that extreme of paying five to six hundred dollars for a four to five-week cycle and injecting myself, or getting my partner to inject me, to help gain mass and be who I wanted to be,” he said.

“No matter how many times people say, ‘You look amazing, you look pumped’ — it’s still in my head that I’m that skinny person.”

While Paul’s weight increased so did his confidence, but steroid use came with a cost.

“After your cycle, there is a come down period which means mentally you drop back to a level that you were prior or perhaps even worse,” Paul said.

Under the supervision of a clinical doctor, a cocktail of drugs was also injected as a precaution to counter the physiological side effects, such as lack of testosterone production and a build-up of estrogen.

While he eventually stopped taking the steroids, partially for financial reasons he said he would “never say never”.

PHOTO Paul says it is harder to build body mass after the age of 40.

ABC CENTRAL VICTORIA: LARISSA ROMENSKY

Paul is still battling with the need to get bigger in an effort to leave the young skinny boy behind.

But he has also started seeing a therapist.

“My therapist digs deep and finds these issues that I need to deal with,” he said.

“I found what has worked for me is to focus on me being happy personally and looking at my own reflection rather than getting that validation from the community, and that’s a big thing that’s taken me a long time to understand.”

If you, or anyone you know is experiencing an eating disorder or body image concerns, you can call the Butterfly Foundation National Helpline on 1800 33 4673 or email support@thebutterflyfoundation.org.au

’13 Reasons Why’ to Address Suicide Controversy With New Warning Video

In response to a study on how the Selena Gomez-produced teen suicide drama influenced teens, Netflix launched a custom video & website of resources.

Netflix has made several changes surrounding the forthcoming second season of 13 Reasons Why — but the authenticity of the streamer’s hit teen drama will remain in tact.

After becoming an instant phenomenon following its March 2017 launch, showrunner Brian Yorkey’s adaptation of the best-selling novel also found itself thrust into a global conversation about how the series handled some of the tougher topics addressed in the high school drama, namely the graphic depiction of teenager Hannah Baker’s (Katherine Langford) suicide. The series revolves around Hannah’s unexplained suicide — which was shown up close — and the 13 audiotapes she left behind for her classmates, including star Dylan Minnette, who were left to decipher and ultimately understand why she took her life.

While the series was praised for raising awareness to traumas facing teens including suicide, sexual assault, substance abuse and bullying, 13 Reasons Why also faced criticism for “glorifying” suicide from mental health advocates and for triggering a surge in online searches.

In response to the backlash, the streaming giant added warning cards and crisis hotlines and, as season two approaches, Netflix will dig deeper to understand the controversy. In a bid to better understand the conversation surrounding the show between teens and parents, Netflix commissioned a global research study with Northwestern University’s Center on Media and Human Development, “Exploring How Teens and Parents Responded to 13 Reasons Why.” The results were shared Wednesday at a panel in New York that featured experts in suicide prevention and teen activism, as well as Netflix original series vp Brian Wright and 13 Reasons Why showrunner and creator Yorkey.

The study was commissioned in late summer, with data collected in November. The results were delivered to Netflix two weeks ago, with the streamer now announcing a wave of changes based on recommendations from the study that included a custom introduction for each season and a season two aftershow. A formal premiere date has not yet been announced but Wright confirmed it will return this year. Production on season two wrapped before the study was completed, so the results of the investigation will not have had any impact on the show’s creative.

“When we took on adapting the book, we knew it was a cultural force already,” Yorkey said during the panel. “From the very first meeting I had with [executive producers] Selena Gomez and [her mother] Mandy Teefey, we said, ‘We have to portray this story as authentically as we can. We have to tell the truth.'”

He said that plan continued when he began writing the second season last February. “The challenge of when you are making a piece of entertainment for young viewers is that you want very much to make something that has a positive impact on their lives, but the instant that you become instructive and try to tell them the message that you want to convey and the right choices to make, they will tune out. They will feel pandered to,” he said. “From the beginning, we knew that we had to tell the stories as honestly as we could, that we had to portray these characters and the things that they go through with as much authenticity as we could bring to it, and especially that these tough topics deserved the most honestly in order to make something that teens would look at and recognize in this show their lives, themselves, people that they know and things they are going through. That was our mission from the very first moment and it’s really exciting to see that born out of the research.”

After talking to more than 5,000 teens and parents in five countries, Northwestern’s study found that a majority of the teens said they related to the characters and felt that the series was an authentic depiction of high school life. A range of 63 to 74 percent felt that the intensity of the show was appropriate and 63 to 79 percent felt that the graphic nature of Hannah’s death was necessary to show how painful suicide is. Overall, the study found that the show “opened their eyes” about how people their age may be affected by depression. (Complete results can be viewed here.)

Part of the conclusion presented by the center’s director, Dr. Ellen Wartella, included the opinion that there is area for improvement when dealing with such topics in entertainment. In response to recommendations for how media can better provide to support to both teens and parents of teens, Netflix announced several changes, including an introductory video from the cast breaking character to warn viewers about the topics and nature of the show and recommend how they get support if needed. The custom intro (watch that, above) will also be added ahead of the first season for viewers who are new to the series or who opt to rewatch ahead of season two, where it will also be included.

“When you press play on series, that will be the first thing everyone sees,” Wright said of the video, which features Langford (Hannah), Minnette (Clay), Justin Prentice (Bryce) and Alisha Boe (Jessica). The end of the video prompts viewers to visit 13ReasonsWhy.Info, where Netflix has added additional resources from mental heath experts, including a downloadable discussion guide created with the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.

Netflix has also launched a season two aftershow, Beyond the Reasons, that will play after the 13th and final episode to continue the conversation with castmembers, experts and producers talking about some of the show’s tough topics. Wartella told THR that included in her recommendations was also having mental health professionals discussing the difficult episodes.

Yorkey told THR he only viewed the results of the study days ahead of the panel and Wright clarified that the research was not conducted to impact the show’s content. Instead it “emboldens” them to believe the show is playing a role in critical conversations. “The content of the show hasn’t changed but the research showed that people are craving more information and they are craving help,” he said. “I’ve always felt this show had the ability to start a really important dialogue. I do think that’s what we saw born out of season one and through the research — that it made people talk. I never would have predicted that it would have done that extra thing, which is to make people act more kindly to each other, and we’ve also seen that in the research and for me that is incredibly powerful. That’s the power of art.”

As for the decision to renew the series for a second season — the freshman run, like HBO’s Big Little Lies and Hulu’s The Handmaid’s Tale, covered the entire book that served as inspiration for the series — Wright said Yorkey had a potential path forward, and later invited Netflix to the writers room to see what he had come up with, a plan that immediately excited the powers that be.

“The book concludes at the same place season one concluded and we were, at Netflix prepared for it to be only one season, if that was what the best version of the show was,” said Wright about the controversial decision to renew the drama. “Brian walked us through a vision for season two that not only continues the story, it continues these characters’ journeys. It continues this dialogue and conversations and the expirations of some of these super tough topics, but in a way that’s always wrapped in a very entertaining and propulsive thread in the story.”

Here’s the link to the PSA from NETFLIX https://youtu.be/WU-iQ9mA31Y

Contributed from Billboard Musics’ Jackie Strause

Surging Demand for Mental Health Care Jams College Services

Students may wait weeks for a basic consultation; sometimes even longer to see a psychiatrist
-Jacob Griffin,Executive Director of Student Mental Health Policy Alliance

Colleges across the country are failing to keep up with a troubling spike in demand for mental health care — leaving students stuck on waiting lists for weeks, unable to get help.

STAT surveyed dozens of universities about their mental health services. From major public institutions to small elite colleges, a striking pattern emerged: Students often have to wait weeks just for an initial intake exam to review their symptoms. The wait to see a psychiatrist who can prescribe or adjust medication — often a part-time employee — may be longer still.

Students on many campuses are so frustrated that they launched a petition last month demanding expanded services. They plan to send it to 20 top universities, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, MIT, and Columbia, where seven students have died this school year from suicide and suspected drug overdose.

“Students are turned away every day from receiving the treatment they need, and multiple suicide attempts and deaths go virtually ignored each semester,” the petition reads. More than 700 people have signed; many have left comments about their personal experiences trying to get counseling at college. “I’m signing because if a kid in crisis needs help they should not have to wait,” one wrote.

STAT requested information from 98 campuses across the country and received answers from 50 of those schools. Among the findings:

At Northwestern University, it can take up to three weeks to get a counseling appointment. At Washington University in St. Louis, the wait time runs nearly 13 days, on average, in the fall semester.

At the University of Washington in Seattle, delays in getting care are so routine, the wait time is posted online; it’s consistently hovered between two and three weeks in recent months. In Florida, where educators are pressing the state legislature for millions in new funding to hire counselors, the wait times at University of Florida campuses can stretch two weeks.

Smaller schools aren’t exempt, either: At Carleton College, a liberal arts campus in Northfield, Minn., the wait list can stretch up to 10 days.

A few weeks’ wait may not seem like much. After all, it often takes that long, or longer, for adults to land a medical appointment with a specialist. But such wait times can be brutal for college students — who may be away from home for the first time, without a support network, and up against more academic and peer pressure than ever before. Every class, every meal, every party can become a hurdle for students struggling with eating disorders, depression, and other issues.

Many counseling centers say that they are often overwhelmed during the most stressful times for students, such as midterms and finals. Creighton University in Omaha, Neb., for example, reports a wait time of up to a month during busy periods.

In most instances, STAT’s examination found, students who say that they are suicidal are seen at once, and suicide hotlines are available for after-hours emergencies. But some students are uncomfortable acknowledging an impulse to harm themselves, and thus get pushed to the end of the line, along with undergrads struggling with concerns ranging from acute anxiety to gender identity issues.

Campus counselors are acutely aware that they’re leaving students stranded but say they don’t have the resources to do better.

“You’re making sure people are safe in the moment,” said Ben Locke, who runs a national college counseling network and directs counseling services at Pennsylvania State University. “But you’re not treating the depression or the panic attacks or the eating disorders.”

‘I NEEDED TO SEE SOMEONE’

Constance Rodenbarger, now in her third year at Indiana University, first sought help at the counseling center in her second semester, as she struggled to deal with an abusive relationship on top of long-term depression. The next appointment was at least two weeks away.

“I was just looking at that date on the calendar and thinking, ‘If I can just make it one more day,’ but then it became just one more hour, and then one more minute,” she said.

“I just couldn’t hang on.”

The day before her appointment, on Nov. 17, 2014, she tried to kill herself.

Her roommate found her, and Rodenbarger was rushed to the hospital. She called the counseling center from the hospital to say she wouldn’t be able to make it in the next day.

“When I called that day and said, ‘I need to see someone,’ I needed to see someone,” she said.

Indiana University now says it connects with all students who seek counseling within two days. But that connection can involve simply setting up an appointment — for up to three weeks away.

“We, like centers across the country, are working on expanding our staff,” said Nancy Stockton, the director of Indiana University’s counseling center. “We certainly need more clinicians.”

Indiana University and several other large schools said they employ one counselor for roughly every 1,500 undergraduates. That’s at the high end of the range recommended by national experts. The numbers reported in an annual national survey are even more stark: In 2015, large campuses reported an average of one licensed mental health provider per 3,500 students.

When students do get in to campus counseling centers, most see therapists, social workers, or perhaps psychologists.

Just 6 in 10 college counseling centers have a psychiatrist available, even part-time, to prescribe or adjust medications, according to the annual survey, conducted by the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors. That’s a serious mismatch, given that about one-quarter of college students who seek mental health services take psychotropic medications.

There are other hurdles, too. While many schools tout free counseling, they often cap that benefit. Students at Brown University, for instance, get seven free sessions a year. At Indiana University, students get just two free sessions and then pay $30 per visit.

And it can be hard for students to develop a consistent relationship with a therapist when so many college mental health providers work limited hours. Wellesley College, for example, has a counseling staff which includes six therapists — but three of them are only on campus part-time.

While dozens of colleges provided STAT with detailed information about their mental health resources, the public relations staff at others, including Georgetown University, Dartmouth College, and Grinnell College, refused to provide information after repeated requests.

Others, such as Harvard and Yale, declined to provide specific staffing information. In some cases, such as with the US Merchant Marine Academy, media relations staff expressed discomfort about being compared to other colleges.

Columbia University told STAT it employs the equivalent of 41 full-time counselors for just over 6,000 students, which would be an enviable staffing level, far better than most other schools its size. Columbia said its wait time varies, but did not provide a specific range. All enrollment numbers come from U.S. News and World Report.

A SPIKE IN CRISIS CASES

Demand for counseling on college campuses has been rising steadily for several years.

And the latest data, released in January, show a recent spike in cases of students in acute crisis.

One in three students who sought counseling last year said they’d seriously considered suicide at some point in their lives, according to a report out last month from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health. That’s up from fewer than 1 in 4 students in 2010.

And those are just the students who admit they’re in crisis. Untold others don’t know how to respond when an employee at the counseling center asks if it’s an emergency. They may downplay their situation, telling themselves others are in more dire condition or it must not be a true crisis if they have the presence of mind to ask for help.

That’s what happened to Adrienne Baer during the fall of 2015, in her junior year at the University of Maryland. Both her grandparents had recently died. So had a high school friend.

“It was a lot to wrap my head around,” she said. With a push from friends, she decided to call the counseling center. “I didn’t exactly have an education on what their resources were, but I got one,” Baer said.

Baer said she was asked on the phone whether she was experiencing an emergency. She didn’t know how to answer that: No one gave her a definition. So she said no and was shunted to the end of the waiting list. It would be two weeks before she could see a counselor.

She dashed off an angry email to the counseling center the minute she hung up the phone:

“I am currently struggling with the issues I wanted to discuss with a therapist or counselor, but even I don’t know how I’ll be in 24 hours, let alone 2 weeks.…

I don’t know if all that constitutes an emergency or if I need to have a mental breakdown to be seen prior to a two week wait but I am seriously disappointed in the lack of availability in mental health resources.”

That got their attention. She was given a quick appointment for an initial assessment. But for continuing care, Baer was put back on the waiting list. It would be five weeks before she could see a psychiatrist who could prescribe medication.

“I had to wait. There was nothing I could do,” said Baer, now a senior. “It was just a roller coaster that I couldn’t control.”

Sharon Kirkland-Gordon, director of the University of Maryland’s counseling center, said she knows her staff can’t keep up with demand, though she said they’re “working overtime to meet the needs of students.”

Requests for appointments shot up 16 percent last year alone, she said.

Nationally, about six in 10 undergrads seeking counseling are women, and 5 percent are international students. There are roughly an equal numberof freshman, sophomores, juniors, and seniors.

Kirkland-Gordon has started to bring on part-time seasonal staff to help handle the workload. Many campuses also use therapists who are still in training work one-on-one with students, as long as they report to licensed counselors.

“If we had a magic wand, I think you’d probably hear the same thing from all of us counseling directors,” said Kirkland-Gordon. Their wish list is simple: more resources.

No one is entirely sure why student demand for mental health services is rising; factors may include increased pressure from parents or peers on social media, or a difficult job market. Another possible reason: increased awareness about the risk of mental health conditions.

In the past decade, the federal government has given out tens of millions in grants to suicide prevention programs that raised awareness of risk factors. A generation of students trained by such programs is now in college — and seeking help when they feel warning signs. But not every college got a bump in funding to meet the surge in demand.

“If you want a perfect recipe to generate reduced availability of treatment, that would be it,” said Locke, of Penn State, who also serves as director of the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, a national network.

Locke notes that college health centers would never require a student with strep throat to wait two weeks for an appointment. Yet that’s what’s happening to many students with anxiety, depression, and other serious mental health concerns. “It puts the student’s academic career, and potentially their life, at risk,” he said.

As for Baer, she said she made it through that stressful semester by leaning on friends at school and family back in Pennsylvania. She wonders what would’ve happened to an international student or to a freshman without a reliable support network.

“I do feel like I fell through the cracks,” she said, “but I feel like I fell onto a safety net that other people might not have.”

A COLLEGE PRESIDENT SOUNDS THE ALARM

In an era when colleges are ranked by the number of their professors and the quality of their food — or whether their gyms house rock-climbing walls — it can be tough for the counseling centers to make a case for more resources.

Some turn to quick fixes, touting “stress-busting” programs like bringing in puppies for students to pet during midterms or handing out free cookies in the library during finals.

Others are making a concerted effort to respond to the surging demand.

The wait times at Ohio State University were so alarming to Dr. Michael Drake — a physician who stepped into the president’s office in 2014 — that he hired more than a dozen new counselors. That pushed the school’s ratio down to one provider for roughly every 1,100 undergraduates.

“We were doing it to really smooth the pathway of success for students,” Drake said. National data suggest the additional providers will help; 7 in 10 students who seek counseling say the mental health care improved their academic performance.

The University of California system moved to update counseling services in 2014, as wait lists grew and students with acute needs sought care. It took another year to get a dedicated funding stream to hire more counselors, in the form of increased student fees.

“Things start to back up like a traffic jam,” said Gary Dunn, director of counseling and psychological services for the University of California, Santa Cruz. “A lot can happen in four or five weeks during a quarter in college. It really wasn’t OK to have that delay in place.”

Students who have lived through mental health crises welcome more staff. But they also urge better training so that everyone on campus knows to treat mental health concerns as seriously, and with as much empathy, as a physical injury.

Nick, who asked that his last name not be used, was diagnosed with depression before college and had a difficult transition to his freshman year at Ithaca College in upstate New York. “I had no idea how to cope with all of it and I floundered a bit,” he said in an interview.

He sought help early on — during orientation — because he knew he’d likely need it. But he said he was bounced between two counselors and had difficulty getting appointments that fit into his schedule. In the end, he had to pay for a private mental health specialist off campus.

Ithaca did not respond to requests for information on its mental health services, saying its counseling center staff was busy. At the time he sought care, Nick said there were just two counselors for the school’s 7,000 students.

“I was so badly handled. Not by any fault of their own, they were just woefully underprepared,” he said.

This year, by contrast, he had to take time off for a surgery. Getting help with a physical injury was a breeze, he said.

“The administration and professors have been much more understanding and willing to help when it’s something tangible and physical,” he said, “when the doctors can say, ‘Here’s what’s wrong with you and here’s how you can fix it.’”

DRAWING LESSONS FROM TRAUMA

Rodenbarger, the Indiana University student, is still feeling the echoes of her struggles to get mental health help on campus. Her suicide attempt cost her both her job and her off-campus apartment. The medication she was put on cost her a pilot’s license.

But she is recovering — with the help of a mental health provider off campus. She’s easing off the medication. She’s on track to graduate in the summer of 2018 with two degrees, a fine arts degree in printmaking and another in astronautics.

She’s also excited to have seen the school expand its walk-in services for students in need of urgent mental health care. It’s a step forward — and she wants to see more like it.

“Had I gotten help when I reached out for it,” she said, “it would never have gotten to the level that it did.”

CULTIVATING MEDIA PLACEMENT

 

Happy DisAbility Awareness Month!

         This information includes ideas on how to get your story or issues covered by assignment editors at print and online media and how to conduct a Media Watch to help reporters become better informed about the appropriate ways to portray people with disabilities or disability issues.

Another Awareness Month packet that might be useful in working with the media is Media Public Service Announcements.

MEDIA WATCH

How to Participate in Media Watch

Read your local/regional newspapers and their online editions daily and be on the lookout for television or radio programs, blogs or other items that feature a person with a disability or a disability-related issue. It might help to have a notepad nearby so you will be ready to jot down the facts of a media presentation.

After encountering a portrayal of an individual with a disability (positive or negative), respond to the media source as soon as possible. Simply use the enclosed sample email, or if you have time write your own email (See the enclosed suggested paragraphs for composing your own email). Email it with an attached copy of Guidelines for Reporting and Writing about People with Disabilities. In your email be sure to praise journalists who appropriately portray people with disabilities/disability issues and educate journalists who use inappropriate portrayals of people with disabilities/disability issues.

 

Tips for Writing a Successful Email

  1. Be Timely. Write your email as soon as possible after the article is published or the story is aired.
  2. Keep It Simple. Two or three paragraphs should be plenty to convey your message while still keeping the attention of the reader. Edit your emails to make them easier to read.
  3. Use Facts. Relay the details of the news story accurately (date, web URL, page number, name of news program, journalist, etc).
  4. Be Polite. You will be more likely to get your point across if you assume a journalist is uninformed about disability issues but willing to learn about more appropriate portrayals.
  5. Be Helpful. Offer yourself, or any organization to which you belong, as a resource on disability issues for the journalist.
  6. Be Personal. Identify yourself as a reader/viewer/listener and mention your organization if applicable. Personal messages from media customers are very effective.
  7. Follow-through. If you receive a response to your email that you disagree with, or if the media organization continues portraying people with disabilities in an inappropriate manner, revise the information and resend it.

 

 

EDITORIAL PLACEMENT

 

What Makes a Good Story?       

Editors at local print and online media outlets are always interested in a “good story.” So what makes a story idea attract an editor’s attention? For most editors, one or more of the following characteristics make a story newsworthy:

  • Information – provides facts that readers/listeners/viewers don’t already know.
  • Timeliness – relates to upcoming community events and allows time for people 
 to take advantage of the information.
  • Significance – will affect the lives of readers/listeners/viewers.
  • Scope – impacts a majority of community members.
  • Interest – attracts and holds attention, sometimes because of famous participants.
  • Uniqueness – is unlike other information/event.
  • Human interest – stirs empathy in readers/listeners/viewers.
  • Relevance – enhances public understanding of a constant or pressing local issue.

 

 

 

 

When working with media, you will find that editors – from print media, online, radio or television – are not all alike and will not all agree on what is “news.” Perseverance; a helpful, friendly attitude; and knowing when to say “thank you anyway” will be your greatest assets when dealing with the media.

Below are some step-by-step guidelines that will help you place editorial materials with your local media.

 

Story Ideas

Try to generate story ideas. Remember, the story idea must fit the media format. For example, television requires a very “visual” story that will make for good video footage. A simple interview with an expert is often not enough. Children participating in Awareness Month activities, however, would provide interesting visual material. Radio programs would welcome experts on controversial topics, such as “inclusion.” These experts make for interesting call-in shows. Daily newspapers and their online partners favor stories with a universal human interest angle and a visual side for good photos. Weeklies are more likely to use photos you provide. Other publications, such as blogs, online newspapers and newsletters for local organizations or companies, might have other requirements.

Special events, such as barrier awareness demonstrations, can provide good media opportunities, especially if a celebrity or political leader participates. You can also request on-the-air mentions from personalities, such as weather people or popular radio personalities.

 

Media Contacts

Call your local media and explain what organization you are with and that you are planning activities in conjunction with Disability Awareness Month (See enclosed Media Resources). Ask to talk to the assignment desk for radio or television or the editor of the blog or newspaper. If you are interested in getting a story on a certain radio or television show or in a particular section of a print or online publication, such as business or lifestyle, ask who is in charge of that show or section. Present your idea confidently, without being pushy, and explain its value to the publication or station’s audience. If the editor/news director is interested, ask how much time he or she needs to develop the story, what types of story ideas are of interest to their publication or station and how you can best help them.

At that point, you will probably be referred to a reporter. If the news person rejects one idea, mention some others. Ask if you can send your ideas in an email. Be sure to get the correct spelling of the person’s name, his or her correct title and email address.

You should personalize the enclosed editorial placement communication according to your discussion of story ideas. Include your organization’s name with some background information, a listing of local awareness activities, a contact person, email and phone number, and specific details about the story idea and arrangements for helping the story come about (i.e., times experts are available for interviews, times when visually appealing events are taking place and sources for background information on the topic). A week or so after sending the information, you might want to place a follow-up call and/or email if you have not received a response.

 

Statewide News Release

A copy of the Disability Awareness Month news release will be emailed statewide to daily and weekly newspapers in mid-February. When you talk to your local media representatives, mention the release. Ask if they received it and if they can use the material or would like you to provide names of local people who could address disability topics. If they have not received the release, contact Emily Kibling at Borshoff, (317) 631-6400 (voice), and she will promptly send another copy to them.

 

Developing a News Release or Media Advisory

In addition to the Council’s March Awareness Month news release you may want to issue a news release as another way to get media coverage for your own event. Depending on the event you can send a media advisory giving the date, time and purpose or a longer news release in the form of a story written in third person that might be run in a smaller paper as is or used as the basis for a story in a larger paper.

Top Ten News Release Tips

  1. Make sure the information is newsworthy.
  2. Tell the audience that the information is intended for them and why they should continue to read it.
  3. Start with a brief description of the news, then distinguish who announced it, and not the other way around.
  4. Ask yourself, “How are people going to relate to this and will they be able to connect?”
  5. Make sure the first 10 words of your release are effective, as they are the most important.
  6. Write it like a news article and avoid excessive use of adjectives and fancy language.
  7. Deal with the facts.
  8. Provide as much contact information as possible: Individual to contact, phone, email address and website address.
  9. Make sure you wait until you have something with enough substance to issue a release.
  10. Make it as easy as possible for media representatives to do their jobs.

 

(For specific formatting guidelines see the attached News Release and Media Advisory Format)

 

Calendar Listings

A good way to get information to the public about a Disability Awareness Month event is through the calendar/upcoming events section of your local paper and its online edition. First, call to get the contact’s name. Once you have the appropriate contact person, send him or her emailed information, including what your event is, who is participating, and the time, date and place of your event. Many media outlets also have calendar sections of their online editions on which you can post your own information. Note in the information that the event is open to the public and free of charge, if that is the case (sample calendar release enclosed).

 

Interview Preparation

Being prepared for an interview does a great deal to make the interview a success. You or your designated “expert” will have a better interview if you take time beforehand to familiarize yourself with the subject matter. Knowing the subject matter well is the best line of defense. Generate a list of questions the reporter might ask and develop answers.

Remember to use full names (not nicknames) and specific times (“March 1” rather than “recently”) and places. Give complete answers rather than just “yes” or “no.” “Talk in headlines,” getting main points across first. Know the name, phone number and email address of an appropriate contact person(s) or organization(s).

For television interviews, look at the interviewer rather than the camera. Ask the producer in advance if he or she would like to use any appropriate visuals (posters, photos, brochures). Arrive at the studio on time. Dress nicely, conservatively and comfortably. Find a comfortable seated position that looks good.

While the above suggestions will help make a smooth and effective interview, the most important thing to remember is to RELAX!

 

Assist the Media

Try to assist the media representative as much as possible. You will function as the liaison between the news person and the expert. Offer to provide sample questions if the news person wants them. You should be able to provide directions to events and proper dates and times. Let the news person determine scheduling as often as possible. Though it might not be wise to press the person to follow through with your story idea, it is appropriate to ask when a story will be printed or aired so that you can clip a copy or have it recorded.

 

Follow Up

Whenever you receive media coverage, follow up with a thank you email. A sample is enclosed. Please use this as a guide and personalize your email with appropriate information. The news person will appreciate the courtesy of a sincere “thanks.” It might be appropriate to have the executive director/chairperson of your organization send the email.

Sometimes a reporter with the best intentions inadvertently uses language in a story that creates negative impressions of people with disabilities. Examples include “the handicapped” or “the disabled person.” If you receive such media coverage, send a thank you email, but also include suggestions and a set of guidelines for correct language when referring to people with disabilities (enclosed sample email). Use the information suggested in the Media Watch section of this packet. Be sure to include a copy of “Guidelines for Reporting and Writing about People with Disabilities.

 


MEDIA WATCH EMAILS SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS

If you wish to write your own email rather than using the following prepared information, the sample copy below might give you some “starting points.” There are sample beginnings, middle paragraphs and/or endings to guide you when writing.

 

Sample Beginnings or Introductions

  • I would like to call to your attention an article in your paper/on your website/on your station that inappropriately portrayed a person with a disability as being a hero simply for living with a disability. (John Doe’s) accomplishments should be valued for themselves, not because (John Doe) accomplished them while having a disability.
  • On (date), newscaster (Mary Johnson) led a story on Medicaid by saying “the crippled are confined to more than wheelchairs (or other inappropriate language).” While I appreciate your attention to the problems of Medicaid for people with disabilities, I would like to point out to you the inappropriate usage of language describing people with disabilities by (Ms. Johnson.)
  • I am writing in response to an article entitled “Disabled Boy Makes Good” that appeared in the (local paper) on (month, date, and year) on page (xx).
  • I was very pleased to see your story on (Jane Smith) on the (date) edition of (program). While (Jane Smith) has visual impairments, your story focused on her talent as a violinist and her recital at the Opera House rather than on her disability.
  • I would like to thank (reporter) for his article on how the Americans with Disabilities Act has positively affected the lives of people with disabilities.

 

Sample Middle Paragraphs

Regarding: Disability as a Human Interest Story

While I realize that the life of a person with a disability seems like a good human interest story, there is a problem with the message this piece conveys. What the public learns from these stories is that if people with disabilities are simply “heroic,” we (they) can overcome any physical problem. However, the real problems people with disabilities face are not their own physical barriers, but are problems caused by societal barriers, such as a lack of curb cuts or interpreters and blatant job discrimination. The real human interest story is the story of the long fight for disability rights by the disability community.

Regarding: Person with Disability as Average Citizen

Approximately 54 million Americans have some kind of physical, sensory, cognitive or mental disability. People with disabilities are average American citizens and portraying them (us) as anything other than that results in marginalizing a large class of people. Thus, when covering an accomplishment (positive or negative) of a person who has a disability, please do not focus on the person’s disability. Only mention a person’s disability if the story is based on that disability.

Regarding: Language

In your article on (Professor Johnson’s) new book on (?), you describe him as “suffering from ____” and “confined to a wheelchair.” These terms have negative connotations that do not accurately describe the life of (Professor Johnson) nor of people with disabilities in general.

Instead of “suffering from __,” (Professor Johnson) is simply a person who has ______. Similarly, (Professor Johnson) is not “confined to a wheelchair,” but uses a wheelchair to get around. The terms used in your article evoke pity for (Professor Johnson) rather than respect.

The words and phrases used to describe people with disabilities help shape people’s perceptions. A person with a disability should always be referred to as a person first and not by his or her disability. Also, grouping individuals together as “the mentally retarded” or “the handicapped” puts the focus on the disability, rather than on the individual. The attached information describes in more detail the use of appropriate language for people with disabilities.

Regarding: The Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act, signed into law on July 26, 1990, plays a vital role in creating a culture of independence among people with disabilities in the workplace. The Americans with Disabilities Act is not an unfunded mandate. Rather, the ADA is a civil rights law similar to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

 

Sample Endings

Thank you in advance for sharing this information with others on your staff. If you would like any additional information, please do not hesitate to email or call me.

Again, I would like to thank you for your positive portrayal of people with disabilities in your (newspaper/news program/etc.).

 

I would like to provide you with some resource materials to use when writing about people with disabilities.

 

One of the hallmarks of disability awareness is that people with disabilities be portrayed as individuals who are independent, productive and active community members. Thus, in writing and speaking about people with disabilities, the preferred usage is “People First Language.”

 

The basic premise behind “People First Language” is that people with disabilities are indeed people first. Thus, when one is speaking or writing about a person with a disability, it is more respectful and appropriate to focus on the person first rather than his or her disability. For example, rather than saying “the disabled,” say “person with a disability,” and rather than saying “afflicted with blindness,” say “a person who is blind.”

 

To further assist you in promoting “People First Language” among your staff and your readers, we are pleased to share the attached “Guidelines for Reporting and Writing About People with Disabilities,” a very helpful resource written especially for the media.

 

Please share this information with your staff. If you have any further questions about “People First Language” or the Americans with Disabilities Act, please contact me.
MEDIA RESOURCES AND TIME FRAMES

Media Contacts

 

Webpage links:

There are several websites that will let you link directly to the websites of Indiana media including radio, TV and newspapers. Most websites have instructions on how to submit letters to the editor or contact editors or reporters.

  • A list of media outlets and their websites, organized in alphabetical order by city: com/unitein.htm

 

Planning Time Tips

 

To encourage coverage of Disability Awareness Month activities it’s important to know deadlines. Media outlets are not all the same. When you contact the media depends on what type of coverage is desired. Following are some rules of thumb about media deadlines:

 

Radio and Television Public Service Announcements: Most stations prefer to have PSA scripts four to six weeks in advance of planned air dates.

 

Radio and Television Event Coverage: Send media advisories one to two days prior to your event. Follow up by phone a day or two before the event.

 

Daily Publications: If you are planning an event and want people to attend, send the news release a week in advance. For calendar sections, verify the deadlines, because they are often different than normal deadlines. If you want to generate coverage of a special event, email a release a week in advance and follow up by phone a day or two before the event.

 

Weekly Publications: Deadlines at weekly papers are generally about a week before publication, so send releases at least two weeks in advance.

 

Magazines: Magazines work four to five months in advance. Therefore, you might not be able to place announcements of your event. However, you can contact magazine editors to encourage coverage of your Awareness Month activities or to encourage them to interview experts or persons with disabilities.


News Release and Media Advisory Format

 

 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE               Contact:     Erik Johnson

(DATE)                                                             erik.johnson@abcorg.com

(317) 123-4567

ABC Organization

 

ABC Organization announces

new format for media materials

 

Indianapolis — ABC Organization recently announced that it has finalized a standardized format for news releases. The change follows the official ABC Organization guidebook.

 

To comply with the ABC Organization news release format, write the words “FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE” in all caps in the upper left-hand corner of the page. The date the news is to be released should fall directly under “FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE.” List the names of one or two contact persons, their email addresses, phone numbers and company names in the upper right-hand corner of the first page.

 

Underneath the date and contact name(s), write the headline in cap/lowercase style, bold and in 12- or 14-point type. If the headline is more than one line, single-space the lines. Double-space the headline from the copy.

 

The name of the city where the news is taking place should begin the first paragraph of the release, which is not indented. Follow the city name with two dashes (–) and the lead paragraph.

 

Do not include the name of the state if the city is Indianapolis, because Indianapolis is on the Associated Press list of most recognizable U.S. cities and, therefore, does not need to be followed by a state name.

 

Single-space the body of the release and insert a hard return before each new paragraph. Do not break paragraphs at the end of a page. Also, center the word “more” — with dashes on either side of it — at the bottom of each continuing page.

 

*****************************************************************************

To draw attention to important information you don’t want to place at the end of the release, highlight the information in bold at the bottom of the first page of the release.

*****************************************************************************

-more-

 

 

ABC Organization/page 2

At the top left-hand corner of all pages, except page one, write one or two words describing the release, a slash mark and then the page number (ABC Organization/page 2). Do not spell out page numbers.

 

Three number symbols centered (# # #) at the bottom of the last page of the release tell the reader there are no more pages.

# # #

Editor’s Note. It is appropriate to place editors’ notes, photo opportunities, etc. below the “###.” If such notes are included, the words “editor’s note” or “photo opportunity” should be italicized, not bold. Single-space the copy.

 

 

 

(Date)                                                              Contact:                       Erik Johnson

erik.johnson@abcorg.com

(317) 123-4567

ABC Organization

 

Media Advisory

 

 

What               ABC Organization announces its new media advisory format.

 

 

When               May 10, 2008, 2:15 p.m.

 

 

Where             ABC Organization conference room

 

 

Why                In an effort to make company media materials more consistent, ABC Organization

                        has decided upon this particular format for media advisories.

 

Some items to note regarding the new media advisory format:

 

  • The headline is cap/lowercase, bold, 12- or 14-point type

 

  • The “Who, What, Where . . .” are cap/lowercase, bold and without colons

 

  • The contact name is in the upper right-hand corner of the page, followed by the phone number and the company name underneath

 

  • Use the number symbols (# # #) to indicate the end of the advisory

 

Note                 Do not feel compelled to use every word in the “Who, What, Where, When, Why

                        and How” series. Use only those categories that allow you to best present the

information. You might want to use “Note” as a category.

 

# # #

 

(Sample Community Calendar Release)

 

 

 

Community Calendar Release

 

 

For Immediate Release                                        Contact:

(Date)                                                                          (Your name)

(Your email)

(Your phone)

(Name of your organization)

 

 

The ABC Organization is hosting Disability Awareness Day (from X a.m. to X p.m., Monday, March ___, at the Anytown City Hall). The event will include (describe activities). For more information, contact (Joe Smith at 123-4567).

 

# # #

 

 

(Sample Email to Media Contacts – Editorial Placement)

 

 

 

Subject: Disability Awareness Month activities in (Anytown)

 

Dear (Mr. Doe):

 

Thank you for talking with me about Disability Awareness Month and some of the activities the (Anytown Support Group for People with Disabilities) is planning.

 

As we discussed over the phone, several opportunities exist during Disability Awareness Month for coverage of community awareness events, educational topics and disability-related issues. The disability community is one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States, and it’s important that people in our community are educated about this topic.

 

The (Anytown Support Group for People with Disabilities) appreciates your willingness to help in this effort. I look forward to working with you on (producing this show/developing this story). If you have any questions, need further assistance or would like to schedule a special interview with (______), please email me at (jsmith@jsmith.com) or call me at (123-4567).

 

Sincerely,

(Your Name)

(Title)

 

(Sample Thank You Email – Editorial Placement)

 

 

Subject: (Name of organization) appreciates your support of Disability Awareness Month

 

Dear (Mr. Doe):

 

Thank you for increasing our community’s awareness of Disability Awareness Month by (publishing the special story, “_____”; interviewing _____ on “show”; etc.).

 

Your story reminded our community that people with disabilities are people first and are contributing members of society. It is important to eliminate the physical and attitudinal barriers for people with disabilities. Through informative stories like yours, our community will better understand this need.

 

The (Anytown Support Group for People with Disabilities) appreciates your support, and we would be happy to serve as a source of information for any future articles that relate to people with disabilities.

 

Sincerely,

(Your Name)

(Title)

 

(Sample Thank You Email – Editorial Placement –

With Suggestions for Appropriate Language)

 

 

 

Subject: Disability Awareness Month article/broadcast

 

Dear (Mr. Doe):

 

Thank you for your recent article/broadcast about our organization/event. Although we always appreciate coverage about people with disabilities and the issues that concern them, it is also important to realize that the way a reporter tells a story can make a significant difference in how people with disabilities are perceived in the community.

 

Reporting on the disability community is just like reporting on any other minority group; there are “correct” words and phrases to use. The Indiana Governor’s Council for People with Disabilities and other disability organizations emphasize “people first” language that focuses on the person first, with the disability as secondary. For example, woman who is deaf is preferred over deaf woman. In addition, people with disabilities is preferred over the handicapped or the disabled.

 

I have attached “Guidelines for Reporting and Writing about People with Disabilities.” The guidelines explain preferred terminology when reporting about people with disabilities and reflect the input of more than 100 national disability organizations.

 

If you ever have a question these guidelines don’t address, please feel free to contact me. Again, we appreciate your coverage of our organization and people with disabilities in general.

 

Sincerely,

(Your Name)

(Title)

 


Guidelines for Reporting and Writing About People with Disabilities

 

When writing, it’s important to be concise, particularly in journalism. However, sometimes the effort to limit wordiness leads to inappropriate references to people with disabilities. The following guidelines explain preferred terminology and reflect input from more than 100 national disability organizations. These guidelines have been reviewed and endorsed by media and disability experts throughout the country. Although opinions may differ on some terms, the guidelines represent the current consensus among disability organizations. Portions of the guidelines have been adopted into the “Associated Press Stylebook,” a basic reference for professional journalists.

 

DO NOT FOCUS ON DISABILITY unless it is crucial to a story. Avoid tear-jerking human interest stories about incurable diseases, congenital impairments or severe injury. Focus instead on issues that affect the quality of life for those individuals, such as accessible transportation, housing, affordable health care, employment opportunities and discrimination.

 

PUT PEOPLE FIRST, not their disability. Say “woman with arthritis,” “children who are deaf” or “people with disabilities.” This puts the focus on the individual, not the particular functional limitation. Despite editorial pressures to be succinct, it is never acceptable to use “crippled,” “deformed,” “suffers from,” “victim of,” “the retarded,” “the deaf and dumb,” etc.

 

DO NOT SENSATIONALIZE A DISABILITY by writing “afflicted with,” “crippled with,” “suffers from,” “victim of” and so on. Instead, write “person who has multiple sclerosis” or “man who had polio.”

 

DO NOT USE GENERIC LABELS for disability groups, such as “the retarded” or “the deaf.” Emphasize people, not labels. Say “people with mental retardation” or “people who are deaf.”

 

EMPHASIZE ABILITIES, not limitations. For example:

  • Correct: “uses a wheelchair/braces” or “walks with crutches”
  • Incorrect: “confined to a wheelchair,” “wheelchair-bound” or “crippled”

 

Similarly, do not use emotional descriptors such as “unfortunate,” “pitiful” and similar phrases.

 

Disability groups also strongly object to using euphemisms to describe disabilities. Terms such as “handi-capable,” “mentally different,” “physically inconvenienced” and “physically challenged” are considered condescending. They reinforce the idea that disabilities cannot be dealt with directly and candidly.

 

SHOW PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AS ACTIVE participants in society. Portraying persons with disabilities interacting with people without disabilities in social and work environments helps break down barriers and open lines of communications.

 

 

DO NOT PORTRAY SUCCESSFUL PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AS SUPERHUMAN. Many people with disabilities do not want to be “hero-ized.” Like many people without disabilities, they wish to be fully included in our communities and do not want to be judged based on unreasonable expectations.

 

DO NOT IMPLY DISEASE when discussing disabilities that result from a prior disease episode. People who had polio and experienced after-effects have a post-polio disability. They are not currently experiencing the disease. Do not imply disease with people whose disability has resulted from anatomical or physiological damage (e.g., person with spina bifida or cerebral palsy). Reference to the disease associated with a disability is acceptable only with chronic diseases, such as arthritis, Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis. People with disabilities should never be referred to as “patients” or “cases” unless their relationship with their doctor is under discussion.

 

LISTED BELOW ARE PREFERRED WORDS THAT REFLECT A POSITIVE ATTITUDE IN PORTRAYING DISABILITIES:

 

  • Brain injury. Describes a condition where there is long-term or temporary disruption in brain function resulting from injury to the brain. Difficulties with cognitive, physical, emotional or social functioning may occur. Use “person with a brain injury,” “woman who has sustained brain injury” or “boy with an acquired brain injury.”

 

  • Cleft lip. Describes a specific congenital disability involving lip and gum. The term “hare lip” is anatomically incorrect and stigmatizing. Use “person who has a cleft lip” or “a cleft palate.”

 

  • Deaf. Deafness refers to a profound degree of hearing loss that prevents understanding speech though the ear. “Hearing impaired” and “hearing loss” are generic terms used by some individuals to indicate any degree of hearing loss – from mild to profound. These terms include people who are hard of hearing and deaf. However, some individuals completely disfavor the term “hearing impaired.” Others prefer to use “deaf”, “hard of hearing” or hearing loss.” “Hard of hearing” and “hearing loss” refers to a mild to moderate hearing loss that may or may not be corrected with amplification. Use “woman who is deaf,” “boy who is hard of hearing,” “individuals with hearing losses” and “people who are deaf or hard of hearing.”

 

  • Disability. General term used for a functional limitation that interferes with a person’s ability to, for example, walk, lift, hear or learn. It may refer to a physical, sensory or mental condition. Use as a descriptive noun or adjective, such as “person living with AIDS,” “woman who is blind” or “man with a disability.” “Impairment” refers to loss or abnormality of an organ or body mechanism, which may result in a disability.

 

  • Disfigurement. Refers to physical changes caused by burn, trauma, disease or congenital problems.

 

  • Down syndrome. Describes a chromosome disorder that usually causes a delay in physical, intellectual and language development. Usually results in mental retardation. “Mongol” or “mongoloid” is unacceptable.

 

  • Handicap. Not a synonym for disability. Describes a condition or barrier imposed by society, the environment or by one’s self. Many individuals prefer “inaccessible” or “not accessible” to describe social and environmental barriers. “Handicap” can be used when citing laws and situations, but should not be used to describe a disability. Do not refer to people with disabilities as “the handicapped” or “handicapped people.” Say “the building is not accessible for a wheelchair-user” or “The stairs are a handicap for her.”

 

  • HIV/AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an infectious disease resulting in the loss of the body’s immune system to ward off infections. The disease is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A positive test for HIV can occur without symptoms of the illnesses, which usually develop up to 10 years later, including tuberculosis, recurring pneumonia, cancer, recurrent vaginal yeast infections, intestinal ailments, chronic weakness and fever and profound weight loss. Preferred: “people living with HIV,” “people with AIDS” or “living with AIDS.”

 

  • Mental disability. The Federal Rehabilitation Act (Section 504) lists four categories under mental disability: “psychiatric disability,” “*retardation,” “learning disability” or “cognitive impairment” is acceptable. *Intellectual disability is preferred by most groups

 

  • Nondisabled. Appropriate term for people without disabilities. “Normal,” “able-bodied,” “healthy” or “whole” are inappropriate.

 

  • Seizure. Describes an involuntary muscular contraction, a brief impairment or loss of consciousness, etc., resulting from a neurological condition such as epilepsy or from an acquired brain injury. Rather than “epileptic,” say “girl with epilepsy” or “boy with a seizure disorder.” The term “convulsion” should be used only for seizures involving contraction of the entire body.

 

  • Spastic. Describes a muscle with sudden abnormal and involuntary spasm. Not appropriate for describing someone with cerebral palsy or a neurological disorder. Muscles, not people, are spastic.

 

  • Stroke. Caused by interruption of blood to brain. Hemiplegia (paralysis on one side) may result. “Stroke survivor” is preferred over “stroke victim.”

 

The Indiana Governor’s Council for People with Disabilities would like to acknowledge the Research and Training Center on Independent Living at the University of Kansas for the usage rights of the “Guidelines.”

 

College Faculty: Are You Being Rigorous or Just Intolerant?

I always took pride in being “a hard teacher.” I was rigorous but fair; my students

…didn’t need to be geniuses to succeed, they just needed to be “good students.” A good student attends class, sits attentively, participates in discussions, and meet deadlines. But after more than a decade of teaching, I realized that my idea of the good student was standing in the way of good teaching.

My awakening began one day in my required composition course, when three students sat in class wearing ear buds. Trying to stifle my annoyance, I grumbled to myself: “How could they think this was appropriate classroom behavior?” A week later, another student got up and walked out of class in the middle of a writing exercise. One of her peers later told me she had deemed the work “unproductive.” Hearing that I felt the familiar heat of anger: “Why come to college if you don’t want to learn?”

  • I’ve learned to push past those initial flashes of frustration, thanks to fresh data on the mental health of college students and to recent research on teaching. One concept in particular that has changed my interactions with students is the “ladder of inference,” presented in Peter Senge’s The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. The ladder of inference reveals the steps we take to create our beliefs about the world. The first five rungs of the ladder are:
  • (1) observing a person’s behavior; (2) selecting data from what we observe; (3) interpreting that data through the lens of previous experience; (4) making assumptions; and (5) drawing conclusions about that person.

We tend to run up that ladder so fast that we unconsciously draw conclusions based on scant data. To make matters worse, once we’ve drawn our conclusions, we only entertain data that confirm them. If a student is late, we might assume he doesn’t respect our time, and every time he is late, our judgment is confirmed. But if we gather more data, we might discover that the latecomer has OCD and struggles to get out of the house. Of course, the student could just be inconsiderate or a slacker, but we don’t know unless we seek out more information.

I decided to take the information-seeking route. “So, tell me about the ear buds,” I asked one day, and the story of this 18-year-old’s struggles emerged: He had been in multiple car accidents; he is on pain medication but has trouble sleeping and staying focused; the background noise of the music helps him to concentrate. People with ADHD confirm this: They need something in the background to crystallize their attention on the foreground.

As for the student who walked out midclass, I invited her to my office where I learned that she had left because of a panic attack. After a short conversation, I was satisfied that she had the necessary mental-health support, but when I asked about her other courses, she told me she was at risk of failing due to excessive absences. “Easy solution,” I said. “Communicate with these professors.”

But that was not an easy solution. The last time she had divulged to an instructor that she suffered from anxiety, the instructor’s response was, “Yes, we all have anxiety.” In the student’s words, this teacher “shut me down.”

According to data from the 2013 National College Health Assessment, nearly half of 123,078 respondents from 53 colleges and universities across the country felt overwhelming anxiety over the previous year and a third had problems functioning because of depression.

‘Thou shalt not’ directives do not work, and when we fill our classrooms with them, we are not treating students as adults. Still, we hold up the syllabus on the first day of class

like a crucifix to ward off the ‘students from hell.’

While some students arrive with diagnoses and legal accommodations, many begin experiencing mental-health problems during college; the average age of onset of depression and anxiety is 18 to 24. Whether these conditions are permanent or temporary, they are usually accompanied by learning challenges, such as impaired memory and decreased ability to focus and make connections, inhibited curiosity, diminished creativity, and limited flexibility.

To be clear, I have known students with psychiatric conditions who perform the role of the good student, but for others, conforming to that script can be impossible at times.

Despite our students’ struggles, many of us to continue to teach the way we were taught. We continue to lecture and produce syllabi that have the threatening tone of the Ten Commandments: Thou shalt not eat in class, thou shalt not be late, thou shalt not use cellphones. These rigid documents reflect good intentions. We want our students to learn how to behave professionally so that they succeed in the “real world.”

But there are a few problems with that approach: It doesn’t work. Banning cellphones, for example, doesn’t stop students from using them. And in the real world, successful people sit in meetings texting and eating food, or are routinely late. When we fill our classrooms with “don’t” directives, we are not treating students as adults.

Still, we hold up the syllabus on the first day of class like a crucifix to ward off the “students from hell.” In his classic The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher’s Life, Parker Palmer draws the veil from the “student from hell” to reveal a student “full of fear.” According to Palmer, teachers are also driven by fear: “We collaborate with the structures of separation because they promise to protect us against one of the deepest fears at the heart of being human — the fear of having a live encounter with alien ‘otherness,’ whether the other is a student, a colleague, a subject, or a self-dissenting voice within.”

That resonates with me. As a writing instructor I rarely lecture, but I do have a tendency to choreograph every step of class, leaving little space for “live encounters.” If, as Palmer suggests, we are protecting ourselves, it makes sense that our syllabi are stringent. It also makes sense that we are more likely to rely on stereotypes of students rather than seek more data about them — because when we gather more information, what we find can be unsettling. They are not whom we envisioned. Rather thanknowledge-thirsty, carefree adolescents, our students are complex people with complicated lives.

It is tempting to say, “We should leave mental health to the experts.” I have said that myself. But now I recognize that asking students to leave their mental-health issues at the door is not only unreasonable, it’s unjust. It’s akin to asking students to leave their race or gender at the door. Of course, we should direct students to the experts when they are in crisis, but there’s much we can do without positioning ourselves as therapists or saviors.

The work of promoting mental health shouldn’t always be outsourced to the counseling center; it must be part of the fabric of our institutions, including our classrooms. Too often when faculty discuss students with mental-health conditions, the conversation ends in the same place: Either we establish rigorous standards or we coddle students. But that is a false binary.

 

The student who left in the middle of my class told me she felt comfortable talking about her personal struggles with me because in my class we had read an article about mental health. She is smart and hardworking, but she was at risk of failing due to excessive absences. During our 15-minute conference, I gave her my computer to email her other professors and spell out the problem. She needed a nudge to trust that this was her best shot at succeeding at college.

  • Admittedly this is harder to do in a large-sized class. But even in such classes, we can acknowledge mental health by being open to “live encounters,” by ditching rules that don’t enhance learning, by responding to students with flexibility and caring, and by being informed about how mental illness affects learning and behavior.

    Outside of the classroom, even something as simple as organizing a panel where faculty and staff members discuss how they manage their psychiatric conditions can be helpful. Such an event had a profound effect on one of my students who had been diagnosed with depression in high school. Hearing the stories of these successful professors and staffers in her first semester, she said, made her think, “I can do this. I’m going to make it.”

    Reconsidering my notion of “the good student” has improved my pedagogy and my well-being. I spend more time getting to know my students and less time being frustrated. My courses are rigorous, and I have created a space for young adults with complicated lives. In this space, a diversity of perspectives and experiences allows us to learn together and from one another.

    Author, Catherine Savini is an associate professor of English.

College Counseling Center: The preeminent nationwide campus crisis

The Rise of Mental Health

The amount of young adults seeking higher education has been growing, and with it the amount of young adults who are ill prepared for higher education (Mowbray et al.,2006). Along with all this growth, colleges and Universities are finding higher and higher rates of mental illness on campus (Mowbray et al.,2006). A variety of studies has shown the rate of mental illness for college students to be somewhere around 12-18% compared to 10 years ago when it was closer to 5% (Mowbray et al.,2006).

It should be noted that while this rate is high it does not even touch the total amount of increase College Counseling Centers are seeing, in that this percentage only reflects the amount of students with a diagnosable mental health issue (Mowbray et al.,2006). In line with this, 68% of College Counseling Centers in a national survey reported that they are seeing a sharp increase in the need for counseling based services (Kitzrow, 2009); Columbia University reported a 40% increase, MIT a 50% increase, and University of Cincinnati reported a 55% increase during a survey of counseling center directors (Kitzrow, 2009).

In addition, more students are seeking psychological services, and the type of needs students report are diverse and growing more complex in nature (Kitzrow, 2009). For example in 1994 only 9% of clients seeking mental health services on college campuses reported psychiatric medication usage where as this rate is now closer to the 20% range (Kitzrow, 2009). But students that have medication issues or whose needs are more complex aren’t all College Counseling Centers must deal with, they also must cope with the fact that around 28% of freshman polled in a natural survey report feeling overwhelmed; with subsets of the students polled developing clinical levels of distress that continued through college (HERI, 2000). This statistic demonstrates that in some respects the growing need of students seeking to utilize college counseling centers are represented by two tiers; tier 1: students needing assistance in “lower-level” needs of anxiety, distress, family of origin issues, and tier 2: students with clinical disorders or high suicide idealization needing intense and often prolonged treatment.

Mental Health: Why Care?

An important question needs to be asked about the mental health services that are offered on college campuses: why should colleges or universities invest? Providing mental health services costs MIT over $838,000 per year, the cost of mental health is not cheap (Healy, 2002).

While the services are not cheap, the benefits that they bring to colleges are not small either. Brackney and Karabenick (1995) found that academic performance finds a significant correlation to high levels of psychological distress. This means that in providing mental health services to students, the likelihood that those students will do better overall at school are significantly strengthened, which brings about a higher chance of that student completing their program. It has been estimated that 4.29 million people in the United States are in a state in which they have been unable to graduate from college due to psychiatric disorders, so the amount of students and therefore the amount of money they could bring to institutions is by no means small (Kitzrow, 2009).

In addition, a six year longitudinal study found that emotional adjustment is one of the most important factors in retention of students, so the amount of impact mental health services provides to colleges is profound (Gerdes & Mallinckrodt, 1994). That impact is operationalized in a study of students that used University of Idaho’s Student Counseling Center, which found that not only did 77% students report that counseling allowed them to stay in school, 90% reported that counseling helped them achieve their overall goals (University of Idaho, 2000). While counseling centers have a great amount of impact on the campuses they service, the coming crisis in terms of higher demand will be something unlike counseling centers were ever designed for or could ever prepare for, as we will see in a review of their history.

Counseling Center History

Counseling has always existed in some way, shape or form within higher education, but was handled by the office of dean of women or the dean of men (Hodges, 2001). Then during the 1930’s and 1940’s, an argument arose in higher education that faculty should be providing counseling, especially the faculty that expressed interesting in the helping profession (Hodges, 2001). Thus some educators fought for faculty to take over the “normal” academic concerns, while other trained professionals handled more of the concerns deemed psychological (Hodges, 2001).

However, there was much confusion over the credentials, duties, and specialization needed in order to be offering psychological services (Hodges, 2001). Then, with the end of World War II, veterans began coming to college in droves, thanks to the financial assistant the Veterans Administration was offering (Hodges, 2001). This movement sparked a change in mindset for higher education because Federal funds were provided to make sure veterans were offered vocational preparations. This eventually set in motion the expanding role of counselors and created Counseling Centers on college campuses (Hodges, 2001).

Then as the civil rights movement started, social barriers to higher education were challenged and older students began to enroll, creating even more diversity on campuses (Aubrey, 1977). This drastic influx of students, combined with additional pressures for college personnel, provided counseling the right to move out of the faculty housing into it’s own profession (Hodges, 2001). This move into it’s own profession also created responsibilities for the counseling profession, in the need to develop standard of practice, ethics, and specialized training (Hodges, 2001).

In all of this, the American Psychological Association or APA grew in prestige, and created it’s own accreditation guidelines, training programs, and credentialing, moving what was a “generalist” movement into a highly specialized field (Hodges, 2001). With this specialization comes competition, between a variety of degrees, something that very much continues to this day (Hodges, 2001).

In a sense, College Counseling Centers have come out of a history that has required a defense, in that it is extremely special in nature and that sense of specialty must be preserved. If not, it could easily fall back into the sense of generalized mindset it worked so hard to come out of. As stated before the argument of faculty handling advising, counseling and other services has been around since the 1940’s and is still very much alive to this day (Mowbray et al.,2006). Even still there are those with the attitude that a university’s role was to teach, not to treat the students it served on campus (Mowbray et al.,2006). So, those who provide counseling on college campuses face a battle of being able to offer counseling to a growing diversity of students while maintaining that they provide a service that can’t just be handled by any faculty member (Mowbray et al.,2006).

The Law

Colleges obtained a majority of funding via the Federal Government in the form of loans that students take out in order to attend intuitions (McPherson, 2010). Due to this the law, in the sense that the government and therefore funding is directly tied to current law, law is critical in the discussion of College Counseling Centers.

First line in this consideration is the possibility that College Counseling Centers can be sued by the students and community they serve. Lawsuits do happen, not just to larger schools but also to smaller ones (Affsprung, 2010). That said: the larger the campus, the greater likelihood that the College Counseling Center can be sued (Affsprung, 2010). In fact, in an analysis of survey results from 1994-2008 of counseling directors found that once enrollment at a University or College reaches around 7,500 they become 3 ½ times more likely to be the target of a lawsuit or some sort of legal challenge (Affsprung, 2010).

It is important to note that during this same analysis of legal action taken against college counseling centers a variety of reasons for lawsuits were found (Affsprung, 2010). These reasons ranged from malpractice in the form of inappropriate medication being prescribed by the psychiatrist to the most common related to student suicide (Affsprung, 2010). Therefore Counseling Centers find themselves most at risk in relation to suicide idealization of students (Affsprung, 2010).

This brings up the important case of Elizabeth Shin versus MIT, in which the student committed suicide and her parents sued for $27 million. On top of the high monetary amount, legal opinion is Shin’s parents could have won but elected for a settlement of ‘undisclosed amount’ (Hodges, 2001). Shin’s parents were able to sue MIT for their daughter’s suicide because it was ruled that the University had a ‘special relationship’ with Elizabeth and because of this had a higher responsibility to her than just a normal bystander (Massie, 2008). This case, among others, should be noted in higher education in that prior to cases of this nature, Universities had no “duty to rescue.” However, a revision of Torts section 314A revised the student and University or College relationship to be included under “special relations” (Massie, 2008).

This is important within the discussion of the rising mental health issues on college campuses, in that these changes in law will impact the likelihood of Universities winning future cases to the ever growing requirement that colleges take “reasonable steps” to prevent students from harm (Massie, 2008).

In light of this lawsuit, MIT increased its mental health significantly, in order to have an outreach campaign to students seeking counseling as well as to build policy that would provide better counseling systems to students (Kitzrow, 2009). This is critical in that around 41% of counseling directors report that they do have formal follow-up procedure to assist students, which could easily give way to “high-risk” students being lost in the college counseling system (Kitzrow, 2009). However, when it comes to the legal issues, additional outreach is only part of the way to defend against lawsuits.

The Way Forward

As stated before, “reasonable steps” are a key point when considering the outcomes to lawsuits in College Counseling Centers. While outreach is a key component of “reasonable steps,” MIT, in the steps taken after Shin’s suicide, found that the importance of additional staff could not be left out (Hodges, 2001). These findings have been generalized, in the increasing literature looking at students who have entered or are currently in college, their demands as well as their parent’s demands of timely mental health service (Brunner et al., 2014). In fact, in review of the coming generation, Howe and Strauss (2007) provide the advice that counseling centers must “staff up” if they will keep even close to the pace of demands for services.

This insight is directly opposite of where most counseling centers stand today, in that most counseling center director’s report that they have waiting lists for counseling services (Brunner et al., 2014). In fact, estimates are even as high as to state that one third of college centers are unable to meet the demands for counseling service (Brunner et al., 2014).

The importance of additional staff is critical, but where is this staff to come from? Central Michigan University decided to address this issue with the design and implementation of Counselor-in-Residence program (Orchowski et al., 2011). The Director of Residence Life and the director of the counseling center came together to promote increased collaboration between the two departments (Orchowski et al., 2011). Counselors-in-Residence or “CR’s” worked in conjunction with the Residence Advisors, or “RA’s”, in that RA’s would refer students to the CR’s at provided student-friendly counseling times of 5 pm to 10 pm, which is after the normal counseling center business hours (Orchowski et al., 2011). The program at Central Michigan University was staffed with licensed Master-level Professionals Counselors and Social Workers (Orchowski et al., 2011). The University reported that such extension of the college counseling center provided a cost-effective solution to the increased demands for college counseling on their campus (Orchowski et al., 2011).

While a wonderful example of what departments can do when they work together, programs of said nature also carry certain risks with them. Blacklock (2003) caution against multiple locations for students to seek counseling, in that this may force students to drift from office to office until they locate the correct entry point. In addition, it is important to consider how the CRs must be balanced between dorms, in that certain dorms could command more robust attention than others.

That being said, the Counselor-In-Resident program was wonderful in that it brought an additional option to the professionals that currently serve students on college campuses: that of master’s level counselors (Orchowski et al., 2011). A survey of counseling center directors report that around 94% of counseling center staff either have their doctorate in counseling or clinical psychology (Kitzrow, 2009). While the amount of masters-level clinicians working within counseling centers is small, the importance of said clinicians is growing (Kitzrow, 2009). In talking in-depth with counseling directors, one study, which sought to focus on the challenges college counseling centers face, reported that graduate interns and peer counselors are extremely important in allowing their centers to serve additional students (Kitzrow, 2009).

So why aren’t masters-level clinicians being better utilized to serve students on college campuses? The answer is rather complex and once again comes with an important historical context of how masters-level practitioners are viewed. As stated before, the competition for professional opportunities within college counseling centers is competitive and the APA holds a lot of support (Jackson & Scheel, 2013). The APA’s attitude for more than 60 years has been the predominant stance that master’s-level counselors should practice under supervision of doctoral level psychologists (Jackson & Scheel, 2013).

In fact, in 1947 the APA even recommended the discontinuation of masters degrees for “lower level” psychology work, only shifting their stance in 1955 as master’s level curriculum was promoted to support the need for psychological services following World War II (Jackson & Scheel, 2013). While the APA’s history has been one that has sought to fight the independent licensing of masters-level counselors, it finds itself arguing a moot point on this issue, as all 50 states currently allow for master-level counselor to practice via state license (Jackson & Scheel, 2013). Yet the stance of higher education seems stuck within APA’s viewpoint of the 1940’s and 50’s. Masters-level counselors are allowed to practice in all 50 states, are used in social services programs, and allowed to be placed on medical insurance boards (Jackson & Scheel, 2013). It seems the state, social services, and even the general medical community has accepted the use of master’s level counselors, so why not higher education? Even the APA has changed it’s stance in some regards, as a 2006-2010 study by a board created within the organization came to the stance of not opposing independent practice by master’s-level counselors or promotion of supervisors of said counselors by doctoral-level psychologists (Jackson & Scheel, 2013).

In addition to the APA’s changes in regards to masters-level counselors, another important factor in their inclusion is the requirements promoted by the International Association of Counseling Services or IACS, which is important for counseling centers at a university or four year level in order to maintain their accreditation (Danger et al.). IACS standard indicates that professionals with a master’s degree from counseling disciplines can provide psychological services to students and even allow for trainees, provided that they are supervised by qualified staff (Danger et al.).

With all of these changes, it seems higher education has been left behind in its mindset of hiring mainly doctoral-level counselors, as seen by the statistic of 94% of centers having doctoral-based staff (Kitzrow, 2009). Perhaps the perspective is that because doctoral-level staff are allowed to prescribe medication, they are in a sense a better deal for the University than masters-level clinicians who currently don’t have that ability (Kitzrow, 2009). However, as stated before, the coming crisis in mental health isn’t just about the increased diversity in students’ mental health needs, but also about the increased demand (Mowbray et al.,2006). Simply having Universities or Colleges focus on the greatest diversity of services clinicians are able to provide will not stop lawsuits that focus on the American with Disabilities act or the ever increasing need to provide “reasonable steps” in preventing student suicide (Massie, 2008).

So the future of mental health must accommodate two-levels of service: in-depth need, as such is the case with medication, and quality need, as will be the case with the increase in anxiety and depression based disorders (HERI, 2000).

While other members on college campuses can provide some support, the important need of confidentiality and division of mental health services from academic based services must be noted (Mowbray et al., 2006). Students must feel that they are able to present their mental health needs without fear of these needs creating some sort of division on campus (Mowbray et al., 2006). An important part of meeting this need of confidentiality must come from those who are licensed to enforce it, both from a client-centered perspective and from the legal perspective (Mowbray et al., 2006).

The increased usage of masters-level clinicians is a natural solution to this issue of confidentiality and meeting of needs, as they are currently utilized within a variety of other sectors within society. In following with the model of Central Michigan University, these masters-level clinicians could be used in order to fill the extensive need of students, assigning “lower risk” students to them. This would follow the model that most mental health providers use in their coordination, in that students would receive an intake and off of said intake they would be set up with doctoral-level or masters-level clinicians (Schulberg et al., 2002). Masters-level clinicians would receive the students that do not currently need medication support or adjustment, and whose needs are more in line with general anxiety or depression based disorders. Once again, this follows the model of most mental health services and has been shown to be effective in managing cost and providing quality services (Schulberg et al., 2002).

As the masters-level clinicians or practicum students are working with termed “lower-risk” students, doctoral-level clinicians would be assigned “higher-risk” students. These students would be needing more extensive mental health issues or could be needing assistance with management of medication. The use of said system, along with the coordination of support groups and the use of peer counselors, could provide the quality and quantity needed to meet mental health services on campus. This model has been found to work in social services, as well as hospital and private services, showing to be both cost-effective and able to handle the diverse needs associated with providing mental health to a community (Schulberg et al., 2002).

Conclusion

The upcoming crisis on college campuses in terms of mental health has been growing for years and currently does not show signs of slowing down (Brunner et al., 2014). Instead of reverting to the faculty centered model of the 1940’s or simply continuing as planned could easily result in disaster or even worse: more lawsuits. Other solutions must be explored. Yet the cost must be handled in such a way that the already rising cost of tuition does not take another huge climb, as mental health services are expensive to any institution (Kitzrow, 2009).

The recommendation of more inclusion of masters-level clinicians must be explored, as current society has already adjusted to allow for their inclusion (Schulberg et al., 2002). There is already extensive research on how higher education interacts with general society, and how the two are correlated (Komives & Woodard, 2003). This correlation must not be dismissed when it comes to mental health, as higher education has fallen behind in this regard, and must consider a diverse range of opportunities that above all else does not focus on the spaded history of the past. Instead, the focus needs to be on the coming college student’s mental health needs and how to best meet those needs.

References

Affsprung, E. H. (2010). Legal Action Taken Against College and University Counseling Centers 1986-2008. Journal Of College Student Psychotherapy, 24(2), 130-138. doi:10.1080/87568220903558711

Asidao, C., & Sevig, T. (2014). Reaching In to Reach Out: One Counseling Center’s Journey in Developing a New Outreach Approach. Journal Of College Student Psychotherapy, 28(2), 132-143. doi:10.1080/87568225.2014.883881

Aubrey, R. F. (1997). Historical development of guidance and counseling and implications for the future. The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 55, 288-295.

Blacklock, B., Benson, B., Johnson, D., & Bloomberg, L. (2003). Needs assessment project: Exploring barriers and opportunities for college students with psychiatric disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Min- nesota, Disability Services.

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Danger, I. C. I., Records, I. F. C., Director, I. V. A., Trainees, I. V. D., Workload, V. D., Compensation-Salary, V. E., … & Insurance, L. Standards for University and College Counseling Services.

Gerdes, H., & Mallinckrodt, B. (1994). Emotional, social, and aca- demic adjustment of college students: A longitudinal study of reten- tion. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 281–288.

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Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (HERI, UCLA). (2000). The American freshman: National norms for fall 2000. Los Angeles: HERI, UCLA.

Hodges, S. (2001). University Counseling Centers at the Twenty-First Century: Looking Forward, Looking Back. Journal Of College Counseling, 4(2), 161.

Howe, N., Strauss, W., & LifeCourse Associates. (2007). Millennials go to college: Strategies for a new generation on campus: Recruiting and admissions, campus life, and the classroom (2nd ed.). Great Falls, VA: LifeCourse Associates.

International Association of Counseling Services: Standards for University and College Counseling Services. (2011). Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 25(2), 163-183.

Jackson, M. A., & Scheel, M. J. (2013). Quality of Master’s Education: A Concern for Counseling Psychology?. Counseling Psychologist, 41(5), 669-699.

Kitzrow, M. A. (2009). The Mental Health Needs of Today’s College Students: Challenges and Recommendations. NASPA Journal (National Association Of Student Personnel Administrators, Inc.), 46(4), 646.

Komives, S. R., & Woodard Jr, D. B. (2003). Student services: A handbook for the profession. John Wiley & Sons.

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Eligible Colleges and Universities of Intervention in America

 

 

 Listing of Membership-eligible institutions for the Student Mental Health Policy Alliance
– A –
Abilene Christian University
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College 
Academy of Art University 
Adams State College 
Adelphi University 
Adrian College 
Agnes Scott College 
Air Force Institute of Technology 
Air University 
Alabama A&M University
Alabama State University 
Alaska Bible College 
Alaska Pacific University 
Albany State University 
Albertson College of Idaho 
Albertus Magnus College 
Albion College 
Albright College 
Alcorn State University 
Alderson-Broaddus College 
Alexandria University 
Alfred State College, State University of New York College of Technology 
Alfred University 
Allegheny College 
Allen College 
Allen University 
Allentown College 
Alliant International University 
Alma College 
Alvernia College 
Alverno College 
Amberton University 
American Bible College and Seminary 
American Coastline University 
The American College 
American Global University 
American Graduate School of International Management 
American Institute for Computer Sciences 
American InterContinental University 
American International College 
American Military University 
American Public University 
American Schools of Professional Psychology 
American University 
American University of Hawaii 
Amherst College 
Anderson College 
Anderson University 
Andrew Jackson University 
Andrews University 
Angelo State University 
Anna Maria College 
Antioch College 
Antioch New England Graduate School 
Antioch University Los Angeles 
Antioch University Santa Barbara 
Antioch University Seattle 
Antioch University Yellow Springs OH 
Apache University 
Appalachian School of Law 
Appalachian State University 
Aquinas College 
Arcadia University 
Arizona International College 
Arizona State University 
Arizona State University West 
Arkansas State University 
Arkansas Tech University 
Arlington Baptist College 
Armstrong State University 
Art Center College of Design 
The Art Institute of Phoenix 
The Art Institute of Southern California 
The Art Institute of Washington 
Asbury College 
Ashland University 
Assumption College 
Athena University 
Athens State College 
Atlantic Union College 
Auburn University 
Auburn University, Montgomery 
Audrey Cohen College 
Augsburg College 
Augusta State University 
Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois 
Augustana College, Sioux Falls South Dakota 
Aurora University 
Austin College 
Austin Peay State University 
Averett College 
Avila College 
Azusa Pacific University
– B –
Babson College 
Baker College 
Baker University 
Baldwin-Wallace College 
Ball State University 
Baltimore Hebrew University 
Bank Street College of Education 
Baptist Bible College and Seminary 
The Baptist College of Florida 
Bard College 
Barclay College 
Barnard College 
Barrington University 
Barry University 
Barton College 
Bastyr University 
Bates College 
Bay Path College 
Baylor College of Dentistry 
Baylor College of Medicine 
Baylor University 
Belhaven College 
Bellarmine College 
Bellevue University 
Belmont Abbey College 
Belmont University 
Beloit College 
Bemidji State Univeristy 
Benedict College 
Benedictine College 
Benedictine University 
Bennett College 
Bennington College 
Bentley College 
Berea College 
Berkeley College 
Berklee College of Music 
Berry College 
Bethany Bible College 
Bethany College, West Virginia 
Bethany College, Lindsborg, KS 
Bethany College, Scotts Valley, CA 
Bethany Lutheran College 
Bethel College and Seminary, Saint Paul Minnesota 
Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee 
Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana 
Bethel College, Newton, Kansas 
Bethune-Cookman College 
Bienville University 
Biola University 
Birmingham-Southern College 
Black Hills State University 
Blackburn College 
Bloomfield College 
Bloomsburg University 
Bluefield College 
Bluefield State College 
Bluffton College 
Bob Jones University 
Boise State University 
The Boston Architectural Center 
Boston College 
Boston Conservatory 
Boston University 
Bowdoin College 
Bowie State University 
Bowling Green State University 
Bradford College 
Bradley University 
Brandeis University 
Brenau University 
Brewton-Parker College 
Briar Cliff University 
Bridgewater College 
Bridgewater State College 
Brigham Young University 
Brigham Young University Hawaii 
Brigham Young University Idaho 
Brooklyn College 
Brooklyn Law School 
Brown University 
Bryant College 
Bryn Mawr College 
Bucknell University 
Buena Vista University 
Buffalo State 
Butler University
– C –
C. R. Drew University of Medicine and Science 
Caldwell College 
California Baptist University 
California Coast University 
California College of Arts and Crafts 
California College for Health Sciences 
California College of Podiatric Medicine 
California Institute of the Arts 
California Institute for Human Science 
California Institute of Integral Studies 
California Institute of Technology 
California Lutheran University 
The California Maritime Academy 
California National University for Advanced Studies 
California Pacific University 
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo 
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona 
California State University, Bakersfield 
California State University, Channel Islands 
California State University, Chico 
California State University, Dominguez Hills 
California State University, Fresno 
California State University, Fullerton 
California State University, Hayward 
California State University, Long Beach 
California State University, Los Angeles 
California State University, Monterey 
California State University, Northridge 
California State University, Sacramento 
California State University, San Bernardino 
California State University, San Marcos 
California State University, Stanislaus 
California University of Pennsylvania 
Calumet College of St. Joseph 
Calvin College 
Cambridge College 
Cameron University 
Campbell University 
Campbellsville University 
Canisius College 
Canyon College 
Capella University 
Capital University 
Cardinal Stritch University 
Carleton College 
Carlow College 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Carnegie Mellon University 
Carroll College, Helena, MT 
Carroll College, Waukesha, WI 
Carson-Newman College 
Carthage College 
Case Western Reserve University 
Castleton State College 
Catawba College 
The Catholic University of America 
Cazenovia College 
Cedar Crest College 
Cedarville University 
Centenary College of Louisiana 
Centenary College of New Jersey 
Center for Creative Studies College of Art and Design 
Central College 
Central Connecticut State University 
Central Methodist College 
Central Michigan University 
Central Missouri State University 
Central State University 
Central Washington University 
Centre College, Danville Kentucky 
Century University 
Chadron State College 
Chadwick University 
Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii 
Champlain College 
Chapman University 
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science 
Charleston Southern University 
Charter Oak State College 
Chatham College 
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania 
Chicago-Kent College of Law 
Chicago School of Professional Psychology 
Chicago State University 
Chowan College 
Christendom College 
Christian Bible College and Seminary 
Christian Brothers University 
Christopher Newport University 
Circleville Bible College 
The Citadel 
City Colleges of Chicago 
City University, Bellevue Washington 
City University of Los Angeles 
City University of New York 
Claflin College 
Claremont Graduate University 
Claremont McKenna College 
Clarion University 
Clark Atlanta University 
Clark College 
Clark University 
Clarke College 
Clarkson University 
Clayton College and State University 
Clayton College of Natural Health 
Clemson University 
Clear Creek Baptist Bible College 
Cleary College 
Cleveland Chiropractic College 
Cleveland Institute of Art 
Cleveland Institute of Music 
Cleveland State University 
Clinch Valley College 
Coastal Carolina University 
Coe College 
Cogswell Polytechnical College 
Coker College 
Colby College 
Colby-Sawyer College 
Colgate University 
Coleman College 
College of Aeronautics 
College of the Atlantic 
College of Charleston 
College of Eastern Utah 
College of the Holy Cross 
The College of Insurance 
College for Lifelong Learning 
The College of Metaphysical Studies 
College Misericordia 
College of Mount Saint Joseph 
The College of New Jersey 
College of New Rochelle 
College of Notre Dame of Maryland 
College of the Ozarks 
College of Saint Benedict 
College of Saint Catherine 
College of Saint Elizabeth 
College of Saint Mary 
College of Saint Scholastica 
The College of Saint Thomas More 
The College of Saint Rose 
The College of Santa Fe 
College of the Southwest 
College of William and Mary 
The College of Wooster 
Colorado Christian University 
Colorado College 
Colorado School of Mines 
Colorado State University 
Colorado Technical University 
Columbia College 
Columbia College of Missouri 
Columbia International University 
Columbia Southern University 
Columbia Union College 
Columbia University 
Columbus State University 
Concord College 
Concordia College, Ann Arbor Michigan 
Concordia College, Austin Texas 
Concordia College, Bronxville, New York 
Concordia College, Moorhead Minnesota 
Concordia College, Saint Paul Minnesota 
Concordia College, Selma Alabama 
Concordia College, Seward Nebraska 
Concordia University, Irvine California 
Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin 
Concordia University, Portland Oregon 
Concordia University, River Forest Illinois 
Connecticut College 
Converse College 
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art 
Coppin State College 
Cornell College, Iowa 
Corcoran College of Art + Design 
Cornell University 
Cornerstone University 
Cornish College of the Arts 
Cottey College 
Covenant College 
Creighton University 
Crichton College 
Crown College 
Culver-Stockton College 
Cumberland College 
Cumberland University 
Curry College 
Cypress College
– D –
Daemen College 
Dakota State University 
Dakota Wesleyan University 
Dallas Baptist University 
Dallas Theological Seminary 
Dana College 
Daniel Webster College 
Dartmouth College 
Davenport College 
Davidson College 
Davis and Elkins College 
Dawson College 
Dean College 
Deep Springs College 
Defiance College 
Delaware State University 
Delaware Valley College 
Delta College 
Delta State University 
Denison University 
Denver Seminary 
DePaul University 
DePauw University 
DeSales University 
DeVry University 
DeVry University, Columbus 
Diablo Valley College 
Dickinson College 
Dickinson State University 
Dillard University 
Dixie State College 
Doane College 
Dominican College 
Dominican University 
Dominican University of California 
Dordt College 
Dowling College 
Drake University 
Drew University 
Drexel University 
Drury University 
Duke University 
Duquesne University 
D’Youville College
– E –
Earlham College 
East Carolina University 
East Central University, Ada Oklahoma 
East Stroudsburg State University 
East Tennessee State University 
East Texas Baptist University 
East-West University 
Eastern College 
Eastern Connecticut State University 
Eastern Illinois University 
Eastern Kentucky University 
Eastern Mennonite University 
Eastern Michigan University 
Eastern Nazarene College 
Eastern New Mexico University 
Eastern Oregon University 
Eastern Washington University 
Eckerd College 
Edgewood College 
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania 
Edward Waters College 
Elizabeth City State University 
Elizabethtown College 
Elmhurst College 
Elmira College 
Elms College 
Elon University 
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University 
Emerson College 
Emmanuel College 
Emmaus Bible College 
Emory University 
Emory & Henry College 
Empire State College 
Emporia State University 
Endicott College 
Erskine College 
Eureka College 
Evangel University 
Everglades College 
Evergreen State College 
Excelsior College
– F –
Fairfield University 
Fairleigh Dickinson University 
Fairmont State College 
Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary 
Faulkner University 
Fayetteville State University 
Felician College 
Ferris State University 
Ferrum College 
Fielding Graduate Institute 
Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School 
Fisk University 
Fitchburg State College 
Flagler College 
Florida A & M University 
Florida Atlantic University 
Florida Christian College 
Florida Gulf Coast University 
Florida Institute of Technology 
Florida International University 
Florida Memorial College 
Florida Metropolitan University 
Florida Southern College 
Florida State University 
Fontbonne College 
Fordham University 
Forest Institute of Professional Psychology 
Fort Hays State University 
Fort Lewis College 
Fort Valley State University 
Framingham State College 
Francis Marion University 
Franciscan University of Steubenville 
Franklin and Marshall College 
Franklin College 
Franklin Pierce College 
Franklin Pierce Law Center 
Franklin University 
Freed-Hardeman University 
Freewill Baptist Bible College 
Fresno Pacific University 
Friends University 
Frostburg State University 
Fuller Theological Seminary 
Fullerton College 
Furman University
– G –
Gallaudet University 
Gannon University 
Gardner-Webb University 
Geneva College 
George Fox University 
George Mason University 
George Washington University 
Georgetown College 
Georgetown University 
Georgian Court College 
Georgia College and State University 
Georgia Institute of Technology 
Georgia Perimeter College 
Georgia Southern University 
Georgia Southwestern State University 
Georgia State University 
Georgian Court College 
Gettysburg College 
Glenville State College 
Globe Institute of Technology 
Goddard College 
Golden Gate University 
Golden State Baptist College 
Goldey-Beacom College 
Gonzaga University 
Gooding Institute of Nurse Anesthesia 
Gordon College 
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 
Goshen College 
Goucher College 
Governors State University 
Grace College 
Grace University 
Graceland University 
The Graduate Center, City University of New York 
Grambling State University 
Grand Canyon University 
Grand Valley State University 
Grand View College 
Grantham University 
Green Mountain College 
Greenleaf University 
Greensboro College 
Greenville College 
Greenwich University 
Grinnell College 
Grove City College 
Guilford College 
Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota 
Gwynedd-Mercy College
– H –
Hamilton College 
Hamilton University 
Hamline University 
Hampden-Sydney College 
Hampshire College 
Hampton University 
Hannibal-LaGrange College 
Hanover College 
Hardin-Simmons University 
Harding University 
Harris-Stowe State College 
Hartwick College 
Harvard University 
Harvey Mudd College 
Hastings College 
Haverford College 
Hawaii Pacific University 
Hebrew College 
Heidelberg College 
Henderson State Univerisity 
Hendrix College 
Henry Cogswell College 
Heritage College 
Hesser College 
Hesston College 
High Point University 
Hilbert College 
Hillsdale College 
Hillsdale Freewill Baptist College 
Hiram College 
Hobart and William Smith Colleges 
Hofstra University 
Hollins University 
Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Indiana 
Holy Family College 
Hood College 
Hope College 
Houghton College 
Houston Baptist University 
Howard Payne University 
Howard University 
Humboldt State University 
Hunter College 
Huntingdon College 
Huntington College 
Huron University 
Husson College 
Huston-Tillotson College
– I –
Idaho State University 
Illinois College 
Illinois Institute of Technology 
Illinois State University 
Illinois Wesleyan University 
Immaculata College 
Indiana Institute Technologyy 
Indiana State University 
Indiana Wesleyan University 
Indiana University 
Indiana University Northwest 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania 
Indiana University at South Bend 
Indiana University Southeast 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Columbus 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Fort Wayne 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis 
Institute for Christian Works 
Institute of Computer Technology 
Institute of Paper Science and Technology 
Institute for Transpersonal Psychology 
Inter American University of Puerto Rico 
International College 
International Fine Arts College 
International Institue of the Americas 
International Reform University 
Iona College 
Iowa State University 
Iowa Wesleyan College 
Ithaca College
– J –
Jackson State University 
Jacksonville State University 
Jacksonville University 
James Madison University 
Jamestown College 
Jarvis Christian College 
Jewish Theological Seminary 
John Brown University 
John Carroll University 
John F. Kennedy University 
John Jay College of Criminal Justice 
The Johns Hopkins University 
Johnson Bible College 
Johnson and Wales University 
Johnson C. Smith University 
Joint Military Intelligence College 
Jones College 
Jones International University 
Judson College, Marion AL 
Judson College, Elgin IL 
The Julliard School 
Juniata College
– K –
Kalamazoo College 
Kansas City Art Institute 
Kansas Newman College 
Kansas State University 
Kansas Wesleyan University 
Kean University 
Keck Graduate Institute 
Keene State College 
Keiser College 
Kennedy-Western University 
Kennesaw State University 
Kent State University 
Kentucky Christian College 
Kentucky State University 
Kentucky Wesleyan College 
Kenyon College 
Kettering University 
Keuka College 
King College 
King’s College, Wilkes-Barre, PA 
The King’s College, New York City, NY 
Knox College 
Knox Theological Seminary 
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
– L –
La Roche College 
La Salle University 
La Sierra University 
Lafayette College 
LaGrange College 
Lake Erie College 
Lake Forest College 
Lake Superior State University 
Lakeland College 
Lamar University 
Lambuth University 
Lancaster Bible College 
Lancaster Theological Seminary 
Lander University 
Landmark College 
Langston University 
Lane College 
Lasell College 
Lawrence Technological University 
Lawrence University 
Le Moyne College 
Lebanon Valley College 
Lee College 
Lee University 
Lees-McRae College 
Lehigh Univervsity 
LeMoyne-Owen College 
Lenoir-Rhyne College 
Lenox Institute of Water Technology 
Lesley University 
LeTourneau University 
Lewis & Clark College 
Lewis-Clark State College 
Lewis University 
Liberty University 
Life University 
Limestone College 
Lincoln Christian College and Seminary 
Lincoln College 
Lincoln Memorial University 
Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri 
Lincoln University, San Francisco California 
Lincoln University of Pennsylvania 
Lindenwood College 
Lindsey Wilson College 
Linfield College 
Lipscomb University 
Lock Haven University 
Logan College of Chiropractic 
Loma Linda University 
Long Island University 
Longwood College 
Loras College 
Louisburg College 
Louisiana Baptist Universty 
Louisiana College 
Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge 
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans 
Louisiana State University at Shreveport 
Louisiana Tech University 
Loyola College, Baltimore 
Loyola Marymount University 
Loyola University, Chicago 
Loyola University, New Orleans 
Lubbock Christian University 
Luther College 
Luther Seminary 
Lutheran Bible Institute 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg 
Lycoming College 
Lyme Academy of Fine Arts 
Lynchburg College 
Lyndon State College 
Lynn University 
Lyon College
– M –
Macalester College 
MacMurray College 
Madonna University 
Maharishi University of Management 
Maine College of Art 
Maine Maritime Academy 
Malone College 
Manchester College 
Manhattan College 
Manhattanville College 
Mansfield University 
Maranatha Baptist Bible College 
Marian College 
Marietta College 
Marlboro College 
Marist College 
Marquette University 
Mars Hill College 
Marshall University 
Mary Baldwin College 
Mary Washington College 
Maryland Institute, College of Art 
Marylhurst University 
Marymount College 
Marymount Manhattan College 
Marymount University 
Maryville College 
Maryville University of Saint Louis 
Marywood University 
Massachusetts College of Art 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Massachusetts Maritime Academy 
Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology 
The Master’s College 
The Mayo Foundation 
Mayville State University 
The McGregor School of Antioch University 
McKendree College 
McMurry University 
McNeese State University 
MCP Hahnemann University 
McPherson College 
Medaille College 
Medical College of Georgia 
Medical College of Ohio 
Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann University 
Medical College of Wisconsin 
Medical University of South Carolina 
Meharry Medical College 
Menlo College 
Mercer University 
Mercy College 
Mercy College of Health Sciences 
Mercyhurst College 
Meredith College 
Merrimack College 
Mesa State College 
Messiah College 
Methodist College 
Methodist Theological School in Ohio 
Metropolitan College 
Metropolitan State College of Denver 
Metropolitan State University 
Miami Christian University 
Miami University of Ohio 
Michigan State University 
Michigan Technological University 
Mid-America Nazarene University 
Middle Georgia College 
Middle Tennessee State University 
Middlebury College 
Midwestern Baptist College 
Midwestern State University 
Miles College 
Millersville University 
Milligan College 
Millikin University 
Mills College 
Millsaps College 
Milwaukee School of Engineering 
Minneapolis College of Art and Design 
Minnesota State University Mankato 
Minnesota State University Moorhead 
Minot State University 
Minot State University–Bottineau 
Mississippi College 
Mississippi State University 
Mississippi University for Women 
Mississippi Valley State University 
Missouri Baptist College 
Missouri Southern State College 
Missouri Tech 
Missouri Valley College 
Missouri Western State College 
Mitchell College 
Molloy College 
Monmouth College, Monmouth Illinois 
Monmouth University, West Long Branch New Jersey 
Monroe College 
Montana State University-Billings 
Montana State University-Bozeman 
Montana State University College of Technology, Great Falls 
Montana State University-Northern Havre 
Montana Tech 
Montclair State University 
Monterey College of Law 
Monterey Institute of International Studies 
Montreat College 
Moravian College 
Morehead State University 
Morehouse College 
Morehouse School of Medicine 
Morgan State University 
Morningside College 
Morris Brown College 
Morris College 
Mount Aloysius College 
Mount Holyoke College 
Mount Ida College 
Mount Marty College 
Mount Mary College 
Mount Mercy College 
Mount Olive College 
Mount St. Clare College 
Mount St. Mary’s College and Seminary, Emmitsburg Maryland 
Mount St. Mary’s College, Los Angeles California 
Mount Senario College 
Mt. Sierra College 
Mount Union College 
Mount Vernon Nazarene College 
Mountain State University 
Muhlenberg College 
Murray State University 
Muskingum College
– N –
Naropa University 
National American University 
National Defense University 
The National Graduate School 
National-Louis University 
National Technological University 
National University 
The Naval Postgraduate School 
Nazarene Bible College 
Nazareth College 
Nebraska Methodist College 
Nebraska Wesleyan University 
Neumann College 
New Brunswick Theological Seminary 
New College of Florida 
New England College of Optometry 
New England Conservatory of Music 
New England Institute of Technology 
New England School of Communications 
New Jersey City University 
New Jersey Institute of Technology 
New Mexico Highlands University 
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology 
New Mexico State University 
New School University 
New World School of the Arts 
New York Academy of Art 
New York Institute of Technology 
New York Law School 
New York University 
Newberry College 
Newport University 
Niagara University 
Nicholls State University 
Nichols College 
Norfolk State University 
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University 
North Carolina Central University 
North Carolina School of the Arts 
North Carolina State University 
North Carolina Wesleyan College 
North Central College 
North Central University 
North Dakota State University–Fargo 
North Georgia College and State University, the Military College of Georgia 
North Greenville College 
North Park University 
Northeastern Illinois University 
Northeastern University 
Northeastern State University 
Northern Arizona University 
Northern Illinois University 
Northern Kentucky University 
Northern Michigan University 
Northern State University 
Northland College 
Northwest Christian College 
Northwest College 
Northwest College of Art 
Northwest Missouri State University 
Northwest Nazarene University 
Northwestern Oklahoma State University 
Northwestern State University, Louisiana 
Northwestern College, Iowa 
Northwestern College, Saint Paul, MN 
Northwestern Michigan College 
Northwestern University 
Northwood University 
Norwich University 
Notre Dame College of Ohio 
Notre Dame de Namur University 
Nova Southeastern University 
Nyack College
– O –
Oakland University 
Oakwood College 
Oberlin College 
Occidental College 
Oglethorpe University 
Ohio Dominican College 
Ohio Northern University 
The Ohio State University 
Ohio University 
Ohio Valley College 
Ohio Wesleyan University 
Oklahoma Baptist University 
Oklahoma Christian University 
Oklahoma City University 
Oklahoma Panhandle State University 
Oklahoma State University 
Oklahoma State University Tulsa 
Oklahoma Wesleyan University 
Old Dominion University 
Olin College of Engineering 
Olivet College 
Olivet Nazarene University 
The Open University 
Oral Roberts University 
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology 
Oregon Health Sciences University 
Oregon Institute of Technology 
Oregon State University 
Otterbein College 
Ottawa University 
Ouachita Baptist University 
Our Lady of the Lake University 
Our Lady of Holy Cross College
– P –
Pace University 
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine 
Pacific Lutheran University 
Pacific Northwest College of Art 
Pacific States University 
Pacific Union College 
Pacific University 
Paine College 
Palm Beach Atlantic College 
Palmer College of Chiropractic 
Park University 
Parsons School of Design 
Patten College 
Patrick Henry College 
Paul Quinn College 
Paul Smith’s College 
Peace College 
Pennsylvania College of Technology 
The Pennsylvania State University 
Pennsylvania State University at Altoona 
Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley 
Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg 
Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton 
Pensacola Christian College 
Pepperdine University 
Peru State College 
Pfeiffer University 
Pickering University 
Piedmont College 
Pine Manor College 
Pittsburg State University 
Philadelphia Biblical University 
Philadelphia University 
Philander Smith College 
Phillips University 
Pitzer College 
Plymouth State University, Plymouth New Hampshire 
Point Loma Nazarene College 
Point Park College 
Polytechnic University of New York 
Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico 
Pomona College 
Portland State University 
Potomac College 
Prairie View A & M University 
Pratt Institute 
Presbyterian College 
Prescott College 
Preston University 
Princeton University 
Principia College 
Providence College 
Purdue University
– Q –
Queens College 
Quincy University 
Quinnipiac College
– R –
Radford University 
Ramapo College of New Jersey 
Randolph-Macon College 
Randolph-Macon Woman’s College 
Reed College 
Regent University 
Regis College 
Regis University 
Reinhardt College 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
Rhode Island College 
Rhode Island School of Design 
Rhodes College 
Rice University 
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey 
Rider University 
Ringling School of Art and Design 
Ripon College 
Rivier College 
Roanoke College 
Robert Morris College, Illinois 
Robert Morris College, Pittsburgh, PA 
Roberts Wesleyan College 
Rochester Institute of Technology 
Rochester College 
The Rockefeller University 
Rockford College 
Rockhurst University 
Rocky Mountain College 
Roger Williams University 
Rogers State University 
Rollins College 
Roosevelt University 
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology 
Rosemont College 
Rowan University 
Rush University 
Russell Sage College 
Rust College 
Rutgers University 
Rutgers University-Camden 
Rutgers University-Newark 
Ryokan College
– S –
Sacred Heart University 
Sacred Heart University, Puerto Rico 
The Sage Colleges 
Saginaw Valley State University 
Saint Ambrose University 
Saint Andrews Presbyterian College 
Saint Anselm College 
Saint Anthony College of Nursing 
Saint Augustine’s College 
Saint Bonaventure University 
Saint Cloud State University 
Saint Edwards University 
Saint Francis College, Brooklyn Heights, New York 
Saint Francis College, Fort Wayne, Indiana 
Saint Francis College, Loretto, Pennsylvania 
St. Gregory’s University 
Saint John Fisher College 
Saint John’s College 
Saint John’s University, Collegeville Minnesota 
Saint John’s University, Jamaica New York 
Saint Joseph College 
Saint Joseph’s College 
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine 
Saint Joseph’s University 
Saint Lawrence University 
Saint Leo University 
Saint Louis University 
Saint Martin’s College 
Saint Mary College 
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College 
Saint Mary’s College 
Saint Mary’s College of California 
Saint Mary’s College of Maryland 
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota 
Saint Mary’s University of San Antonio 
Saint Meinrad’s School of Theology 
Saint Michael’s College 
Saint Norbert College 
Saint Olaf College 
Saint Paul’s College 
Saint Peter’s College 
Saint Rose College 
Saint Thomas Aquinas College 
Saint Thomas University 
Saint Vincent College 
Saint Xavier University 
Salem College 
Salem International University 
Salem State College 
Salisbury State University 
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies 
Salve Regina University 
Sam Houston State University 
Samford University 
Samuel Merritt College 
San Diego State University 
San Francisco Art Institute 
San Francisco Law School 
San Francisco State University 
San Joaquin College of Law 
San Jose Christian College 
San Jose State University 
Santa Clara University 
Sarah Lawrence College 
Saratoga University School of Law 
Sarah Lawrence College 
Savannah College of Art and Design 
Savannah State University 
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center 
Schiller International University 
School for International Training 
School of the Art Institute of Chicago 
School of Islamic and Social Sciences 
School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
School of the Visual Arts 
Schreiner College 
Scripps College 
The Scripps Research Institute 
Seattle Pacific University 
Seattle University 
Seton Hall University 
Seton Hill College 
Shasta Bible College 
Shawnee State University 
Shaw University 
Sheffield School of Interior Design 
Sheldon Jackson College 
Shenandoah University 
Shepherd College 
Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic 
Shimer College 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 
Shorter College 
Siena College 
Siena Heights University 
Silver Lake College 
Simmons College 
Simon’s Rock College 
Simpson College, Redding California 
Simpson College, Indianola Iowa 
Skidmore College 
Slippery Rock University 
Smith Chapel Bible College 
Smith College 
Soka University of America 
Sonoma State University 
South Carolina State University 
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology 
South Dakota State University 
South Pacific University 
South Texas College of Law 
Southampton College 
Southeast College of Technology 
Southeast Missouri State University 
Southeastern College 
Southeastern Louisiana University 
Southeastern Oklahoma State University 
Southeastern University 
Southern Adventist University 
Southern Arkansas University 
Southern California University of Health Sciences 
Southern California University of Professional Studies 
Southern Connecticut State University 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale 
Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville 
Southern Illinois University Medical School at Springsfield 
Southern Methodist University 
Southern Nazarene University 
Southern New Hampshire University 
Southern Oregon State College 
Southern Polytechnic State Univerisity 
Southern Vermont College 
Southern Virginia University 
Southern Wesleyan University 
Southern University, Baton Rouge 
Southern University, New Orleans 
Southern University, Shreveport-Bossier City 
Southern Utah University 
Southwest Baptist University 
Southwest Bible College and Seminary 
Southwest Missouri State University 
Southwest State University 
Southwest Texas State University 
Southwestern Adventist University 
Southwestern Assemblies of God University 
Southwestern College 
Southwestern Oklahoma State University 
Southwestern University 
Southwestern University School of Law 
Spalding University 
Spartanburg Methodist College 
Spelman College 
Spertus College 
Spring Arbor College 
Spring Hill College 
Springfield College 
Stamford International College 
Stanford University 
State University of New York at Albany 
State University of New York at Binghamton 
State University of New York at Buffalo 
State University of New York at Oswego 
State University of New York at Stony Brook 
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Cobleskill 
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville 
State University of New York College at Brockport 
State University of New York College at Buffalo (Buffalo State College) 
State University of New York College at Cortland 
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry 
State University of New York College at Farmingdale 
State University of New York College at Fredonia 
State University of New York College at Geneseo 
State University of New York College Maritime College at Fort Schuyler 
State University of New York College at New Paltz 
State University of New York College at Old Westbury 
State University of New York College at Oneonta 
State University of New York College at Oswego 
State University of New York College at Plattsburgh 
State University of New York College at Potsdam 
State University of New York College at Purchase 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Canton 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Delhi 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome 
State University of West Georgia 
The Stefan University 
Stephen F. Austin State University 
Stephens College 
Sterling College, Sterling Kansas 
Sterling College, Kansas 
Sterling College, Vermont 
Stetson University 
Stevens-Henager College 
Stevens Institute of Technology 
Stillman College 
Stonehill College 
Strayer University 
Suffolk University 
Sul Ross State University 
Summit University of Louisiana 
Susquehanna University 
Swarthmore College 
Sweet Briar College 
Syracuse University
– T –
Tabor College 
Talladega College 
Tarleton State University 
Taylor University 
Teachers College 
Teikyo Marycrest University 
Teikyo Post University 
Temple University 
Tennessee State University 
Tennessee Technological University 
Tennessee Temple University 
Tennessee Wesleyan College 
Texas A&M International University 
Texas A&M University 
Texas A&M University, Commerce 
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi 
Texas A&M University, Galveston 
Texas A&M University, Kingsville 
Texas A&M University, Texarkana 
Texas Christian University 
Texas Lutheran University 
Texas Southern University 
Texas Tech University 
Texas Wesleyan University 
Texas Woman’s University 
Thiel College 
Thomas Aquinas College, Santa Paula CA 
Thomas Edison State College 
Thomas College 
Thomas Cooley Law School 
Thomas More College 
Thomas Jefferson University 
Toccoa Falls College 
Tougaloo College 
Touro College 
Towson University 
The Transworld University 
Transylvania University 
Trevecca Nazarene University 
Trinity Baptist College 
Trinity Christian College 
Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut 
Trinity College of Florida 
Trinity College, Washington DC 
Trinity College of Vermont 
Trinity International University 
Trinity University 
Tri-State University 
Troy State University 
Troy State University – Dothan 
Truman State University 
Tufts University 
Tulane University 
Tusculum College 
Tuskegee University
– U –
Uniformed Services Universty of the Health Sciences 
Union College, Barbourville KY 
Union College 
Union Theological Seminary 
Union University 
The Union Institute 
United States Air Force Academy 
United States Coast Guard Academy 
United States Merchant Marine Academy 
United States Military Academy 
United States Naval Academy 
United States Open University 
United States Sports Academy 
Unity College 
University of Action Learning at Boulder 
University of Advancing Technology 
University of Akron 
University of Alabama 
University of Alabama, Birmingham 
University of Alabama, Huntsville 
University of Alaska, Anchorage 
University of Alaska, Fairbanks 
University of Alaska, Southeast 
University of Arizona 
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 
University of Arkansas at Little Rock 
University of Arkansas at Monticello 
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff 
University of the Arts 
University of Baltimore 
University of Bridgeport 
University of California, Berkeley 
University of California, Davis 
University of California, Hastings College of Law 
University of California, Irvine 
University of California, Los Angeles 
University of California, Merced 
University of California, Riverside 
University of California, San Diego 
University of California, San Francisco 
University of California, Santa Barbara 
University of California, Santa Cruz 
University of Central Arkansas 
University of Central Florida 
University of Central Oklahoma 
University of Charleston 
University of Chicago 
University of Cincinnati 
University of Colorado 
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs 
University of Colorado, Denver 
University of Connecticut 
University of Dallas 
University of Dayton 
University of Delaware 
University of Denver 
University of Detroit Mercy 
University of the District of Columbia 
University of Dubuque 
University of Evansville 
University of Findlay 
University of Florida 
University of Georgia 
University of Great Falls 
University of Guam 
University of Hartford 
University of Hawai`i 
University of Hawai`i, Hilo 
University of Hawai`i, West O`ahu 
University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine 
University of Houston 
University of Houston, Clear Lake 
University of Houston, Downtown 
University of Houston, Victoria 
University of Idaho 
University of the Incarnate Word 
University of Indianapolis 
University of Illinois at Chicago 
University of Illinois at Springfield 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
University of Iowa 
University of Judaism 
University of Kansas 
University of Kansas Medical Center 
University of Kentucky 
University of La Vernee 
University of Louisiana at Lafayette 
University of Louisiana at Monroe 
University of Louisville 
University of Maine 
University of Maine at Fort Kent 
University of Maine at Presque Isle 
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor 
University of Maryland Baltimore County 
University of Maryland at Baltimore 
University of Maryland at College Park 
University of Maryland Eastern Shore 
University of Maryland University College 
University of Massachusetts at Amherst 
University of Massachusetts at Boston 
University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth 
University of Massachusetts at Lowell 
University of Massachusetts Medical School 
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey 
University of Memphis 
University of Miami 
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 
University of Michigan-Dearborn 
University of Michigan-Flint 
University of Minnesota-Crookston 
University of Minnesota-Duluth 
University of Minnesota-Morris 
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities 
University of Mississippi 
University of Missouri-Columbia 
University of Missouri-Kansas City 
University of Missouri-Rolla 
University of Missouri-Saint Louis 
University of Montana, Missoula 
University of Montevallo 
University of Natural Medicine 
University of Nebraska, Kearney 
University of Nebraska, Lincoln 
University of Nebraska, Omaha 
University of Nevada, Las Vegas 
University of Nevada, Reno 
University of New England 
University of New Hampshire, Durham 
University of New Haven 
University of New Mexico 
University of New Orleans 
University of Newport 
University of North Alabama 
University of North Carolina at Asheville 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
University of North Carolina at Charlotte 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro 
University of North Carolina at Pembroke 
University of North Carolina at Wilmington 
University of North Dakota 
University of North Dakota–Lake Region 
University of North Florida 
University of North Texas 
University of Northern Colorado 
University of Northern Iowa 
University of Northern Washington 
University of Notre Dame 
University of Oklahoma 
University of Oregon 
University of Orlando 
University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Science 
University of the Ozarks 
University of the Pacific 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Phoenix 
University of Pittsburgh 
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford 
University of Pittsburgh at Greenburg 
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 
University of Portland 
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez 
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras 
University of Puget Sound 
University of Redlands 
University of Rhode Island 
University of Richmond 
University of Rio Grande 
University of Rochester 
University of St. Francis 
University of St. Thomas, Houston 
University of St. Thomas, Saint Paul 
University of San Diego 
University of San Francisco 
University of Sarasota 
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma 
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia 
University of Scranton 
University of Sioux Falls 
University of the South 
University of South Alabama 
University of South Carolina 
University of South Carolina, Aiken 
University of South Carolina, Beaufort 
University of South Carolina, Spartanburg 
University of South Dakota 
University of South Florida 
University of Southern California 
University of Southern Colorado 
University of Southern Indiana 
University of Southern Maine 
University of Southern Mississippi 
University of Tampa 
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga 
University of Tennessee Health Science Center 
University of Tennessee, Knoxville 
University of Tennessee, Martin 
University of Texas at Arlington 
University of Texas at Austin 
University of Texas at Brownsville 
University of Texas at Dallas 
University of Texas at El Paso 
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston 
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 
University of Texas Health Center at Tyler 
University of Texas Medical Branch 
University of Texas-Pan American 
University of Texas of the Permian Basin 
University of Texas at San Antonio 
University of Texas at Tyler 
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center 
University of Toledo 
University of Tulsa 
University of Utah 
University of Vermont 
University of the Virgin Islands 
University of Virginia 
University of Washington 
University of West Alabama 
University of West Florida 
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay 
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire 
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 
University of Wisconsin-Madison 
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh 
University of Wisconsin-Parkside 
University of Wisconsin-Platteville 
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point 
University of Wisconsin-Stout 
University of Wisconsin-Superior 
University of Wisconsin-River Falls 
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater 
University of Wyoming 
Upper Iowa University 
Urbana University 
Ursinus College 
Ursuline College 
Utah State University 
Utah Valley State College 
Utica College
– V –
Valdosta State University 
Valley City State University 
Valparaiso University 
Vanderbilt University 
Vanguard University 
Vassar College 
Vennard College 
Vermont Technical College 
Villa Julie College 
Villanova University 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
Virginia Intermont College 
Virginia International University 
Virginia Military Institute 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 
Virginia State University 
Virginia Union University 
Virginia University of Lynchburg 
Virginia Wesleyan College 
Viterbo College 
Voorhees College
– W –
Wabash College 
Wagner College 
Wake Forest University 
Warner Pacific College 
Wartburg College 
Walden University 
Walla Walla College 
Walsh University 
Warren Wilson College 
Washburn University 
Washington & Jefferson College 
Washington & Lee University 
Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary 
Washington College 
Washington State University 
Washington University in Saint Louis 
Wayland Baptist University 
Wayne State College 
Wayne State University 
Waynesburg College 
Webb Institute 
Weber State University 
Webster University 
Webster University North Florida 
Wellesley College 
Wells College 
Wentworth Institute of Technology 
Wesley College 
Wesleyan College 
Wesleyan University 
West Coast University 
West Chester University of Pennsylvania 
West Liberty State College 
West Texas A&M University 
West Virginia State College 
West Virginia University 
West Virginia University Parkersburg 
West Virginia Wesleyan College 
Western Baptist College 
Western Carolina University 
Western Connecticut State University 
Western Governors University 
Western Illinois University 
Western International University 
Western Kentucky University 
Western Maryland College 
Western Michigan University 
Western Montana College 
Western New England College 
Western New Mexico University 
Western Oregon University 
Western State College 
Western State University College of Law 
Western States Chiropractic College 
Western University of Health Sciences 
Western Washington University 
Westfield State College 
Westminster College, Fulton Missouri 
Westminster College, New Wilmington Pennsylvania 
Westminster College, Salt Lake City 
Westminster Theological Seminary 
Westminster Theological Seminary in California 
Westmont College 
Westwood College of Technology 
Wheaton College, Wheaton Illinois 
Wheaton College, Massachusetts 
Wheeling Jesuit University 
Wheelock College 
Whitman College 
Whittier College 
Whitworth College 
Wichita State University 
Widener University 
Wilberforce University 
Wilkes University 
Willamette University 
William Howard Taft University 
William Carey International University 
William Jewell College 
William Mitchell College of Law 
William Paterson University 
William Penn College 
William Woods University 
Williams Baptist College 
Williams College 
Wilmington College, New Castle Delaware 
Wilmington College, Wilmington Ohio 
Wilson College 
Wingate University 
Winston-Salem State University 
Winona State University 
Winthrop University 
Wisconsin Lutheran College 
Wittenberg University 
Wofford College 
Woodbury University 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
Worcester State College 
Wright Institute 
Wright State University
– X –
Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 
Xavier University of Louisiana
– Y –
Yale University 
Yeshiva University 
York College, York Nebraska 
York College of Pennsylvania 
Youngstown State University
– Z –
Zion Bible Institute
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

– A –
Abilene Christian University
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College
Academy of Art University
Adams State College
Adelphi University
Adrian College
Agnes Scott College
Air Force Institute of Technology
Air University
Alabama A&M University
Alabama State University
Alaska Bible College
Alaska Pacific University
Albany State University
Albertson College of Idaho
Albertus Magnus College
Albion College
Albright College
Alcorn State University
Alderson-Broaddus College
Alexandria University
Alfred State College, State University of New York College of Technology
Alfred University
Allegheny College
Allen College
Allen University
Allentown College
Alliant International University
Alma College
Alvernia College
Alverno College
Amberton University
American Bible College and Seminary
American Coastline University
The American College
American Global University
American Graduate School of International Management
American Institute for Computer Sciences
American InterContinental University
American International College
American Military University
American Public University
American Schools of Professional Psychology
American University
American University of Hawaii
Amherst College
Anderson College
Anderson University
Andrew Jackson University
Andrews University
Angelo State University
Anna Maria College
Antioch College
Antioch New England Graduate School
Antioch University Los Angeles
Antioch University Santa Barbara
Antioch University Seattle
Antioch University Yellow Springs OH
Apache University
Appalachian School of Law
Appalachian State University
Aquinas College
Arcadia University
Arizona International College
Arizona State University
Arizona State University West
Arkansas State University
Arkansas Tech University
Arlington Baptist College
Armstrong State University
Art Center College of Design
The Art Institute of Phoenix
The Art Institute of Southern California
The Art Institute of Washington
Asbury College
Ashland University
Assumption College
Athena University
Athens State College
Atlantic Union College
Auburn University
Auburn University, Montgomery
Audrey Cohen College
Augsburg College
Augusta State University
Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Augustana College, Sioux Falls South Dakota
Aurora University
Austin College
Austin Peay State University
Averett College
Avila College
Azusa Pacific University
– B –
Babson College
Baker College
Baker University
Baldwin-Wallace College
Ball State University
Baltimore Hebrew University
Bank Street College of Education
Baptist Bible College and Seminary
The Baptist College of Florida
Bard College
Barclay College
Barnard College
Barrington University
Barry University
Barton College
Bastyr University
Bates College
Bay Path College
Baylor College of Dentistry
Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor University
Belhaven College
Bellarmine College
Bellevue University
Belmont Abbey College
Belmont University
Beloit College
Bemidji State Univeristy
Benedict College
Benedictine College
Benedictine University
Bennett College
Bennington College
Bentley College
Berea College
Berkeley College
Berklee College of Music
Berry College
Bethany Bible College
Bethany College, West Virginia
Bethany College, Lindsborg, KS
Bethany College, Scotts Valley, CA
Bethany Lutheran College
Bethel College and Seminary, Saint Paul Minnesota
Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee
Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana
Bethel College, Newton, Kansas
Bethune-Cookman College
Bienville University
Biola University
Birmingham-Southern College
Black Hills State University
Blackburn College
Bloomfield College
Bloomsburg University
Bluefield College
Bluefield State College
Bluffton College
Bob Jones University
Boise State University
The Boston Architectural Center
Boston College
Boston Conservatory
Boston University
Bowdoin College
Bowie State University
Bowling Green State University
Bradford College
Bradley University
Brandeis University
Brenau University
Brewton-Parker College
Briar Cliff University
Bridgewater College
Bridgewater State College
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University Hawaii
Brigham Young University Idaho
Brooklyn College
Brooklyn Law School
Brown University
Bryant College
Bryn Mawr College
Bucknell University
Buena Vista University
Buffalo State
Butler University
– C –
C. R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Caldwell College
California Baptist University
California Coast University
California College of Arts and Crafts
California College for Health Sciences
California College of Podiatric Medicine
California Institute of the Arts
California Institute for Human Science
California Institute of Integral Studies
California Institute of Technology
California Lutheran University
The California Maritime Academy
California National University for Advanced Studies
California Pacific University
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State University, Bakersfield
California State University, Channel Islands
California State University, Chico
California State University, Dominguez Hills
California State University, Fresno
California State University, Fullerton
California State University, Hayward
California State University, Long Beach
California State University, Los Angeles
California State University, Monterey
California State University, Northridge
California State University, Sacramento
California State University, San Bernardino
California State University, San Marcos
California State University, Stanislaus
California University of Pennsylvania
Calumet College of St. Joseph
Calvin College
Cambridge College
Cameron University
Campbell University
Campbellsville University
Canisius College
Canyon College
Capella University
Capital University
Cardinal Stritch University
Carleton College
Carlow College
Carnegie Institution of Washington
Carnegie Mellon University
Carroll College, Helena, MT
Carroll College, Waukesha, WI
Carson-Newman College
Carthage College
Case Western Reserve University
Castleton State College
Catawba College
The Catholic University of America
Cazenovia College
Cedar Crest College
Cedarville University
Centenary College of Louisiana
Centenary College of New Jersey
Center for Creative Studies College of Art and Design
Central College
Central Connecticut State University
Central Methodist College
Central Michigan University
Central Missouri State University
Central State University
Central Washington University
Centre College, Danville Kentucky
Century University
Chadron State College
Chadwick University
Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii
Champlain College
Chapman University
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Charleston Southern University
Charter Oak State College
Chatham College
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
Chicago-Kent College of Law
Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Chicago State University
Chowan College
Christendom College
Christian Bible College and Seminary
Christian Brothers University
Christopher Newport University
Circleville Bible College
The Citadel
City Colleges of Chicago
City University, Bellevue Washington
City University of Los Angeles
City University of New York
Claflin College
Claremont Graduate University
Claremont McKenna College
Clarion University
Clark Atlanta University
Clark College
Clark University
Clarke College
Clarkson University
Clayton College and State University
Clayton College of Natural Health
Clemson University
Clear Creek Baptist Bible College
Cleary College
Cleveland Chiropractic College
Cleveland Institute of Art
Cleveland Institute of Music
Cleveland State University
Clinch Valley College
Coastal Carolina University
Coe College
Cogswell Polytechnical College
Coker College
Colby College
Colby-Sawyer College
Colgate University
Coleman College
College of Aeronautics
College of the Atlantic
College of Charleston
College of Eastern Utah
College of the Holy Cross
The College of Insurance
College for Lifelong Learning
The College of Metaphysical Studies
College Misericordia
College of Mount Saint Joseph
The College of New Jersey
College of New Rochelle
College of Notre Dame of Maryland
College of the Ozarks
College of Saint Benedict
College of Saint Catherine
College of Saint Elizabeth
College of Saint Mary
College of Saint Scholastica
The College of Saint Thomas More
The College of Saint Rose
The College of Santa Fe
College of the Southwest
College of William and Mary
The College of Wooster
Colorado Christian University
Colorado College
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado State University
Colorado Technical University
Columbia College
Columbia College of Missouri
Columbia International University
Columbia Southern University
Columbia Union College
Columbia University
Columbus State University
Concord College
Concordia College, Ann Arbor Michigan
Concordia College, Austin Texas
Concordia College, Bronxville, New York
Concordia College, Moorhead Minnesota
Concordia College, Saint Paul Minnesota
Concordia College, Selma Alabama
Concordia College, Seward Nebraska
Concordia University, Irvine California
Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin
Concordia University, Portland Oregon
Concordia University, River Forest Illinois
Connecticut College
Converse College
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art
Coppin State College
Cornell College, Iowa
Corcoran College of Art + Design
Cornell University
Cornerstone University
Cornish College of the Arts
Cottey College
Covenant College
Creighton University
Crichton College
Crown College
Culver-Stockton College
Cumberland College
Cumberland University
Curry College
Cypress College
– D –
Daemen College
Dakota State University
Dakota Wesleyan University
Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Theological Seminary
Dana College
Daniel Webster College
Dartmouth College
Davenport College
Davidson College
Davis and Elkins College
Dawson College
Dean College
Deep Springs College
Defiance College
Delaware State University
Delaware Valley College
Delta College
Delta State University
Denison University
Denver Seminary
DePaul University
DePauw University
DeSales University
DeVry University
DeVry University, Columbus
Diablo Valley College
Dickinson College
Dickinson State University
Dillard University
Dixie State College
Doane College
Dominican College
Dominican University
Dominican University of California
Dordt College
Dowling College
Drake University
Drew University
Drexel University
Drury University
Duke University
Duquesne University
D’Youville College
– E –
Earlham College
East Carolina University
East Central University, Ada Oklahoma
East Stroudsburg State University
East Tennessee State University
East Texas Baptist University
East-West University
Eastern College
Eastern Connecticut State University
Eastern Illinois University
Eastern Kentucky University
Eastern Mennonite University
Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Nazarene College
Eastern New Mexico University
Eastern Oregon University
Eastern Washington University
Eckerd College
Edgewood College
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Edward Waters College
Elizabeth City State University
Elizabethtown College
Elmhurst College
Elmira College
Elms College
Elon University
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Emerson College
Emmanuel College
Emmaus Bible College
Emory University
Emory & Henry College
Empire State College
Emporia State University
Endicott College
Erskine College
Eureka College
Evangel University
Everglades College
Evergreen State College
Excelsior College
– F –
Fairfield University
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Fairmont State College
Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary
Faulkner University
Fayetteville State University
Felician College
Ferris State University
Ferrum College
Fielding Graduate Institute
Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School
Fisk University
Fitchburg State College
Flagler College
Florida A & M University
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Christian College
Florida Gulf Coast University
Florida Institute of Technology
Florida International University
Florida Memorial College
Florida Metropolitan University
Florida Southern College
Florida State University
Fontbonne College
Fordham University
Forest Institute of Professional Psychology
Fort Hays State University
Fort Lewis College
Fort Valley State University
Framingham State College
Francis Marion University
Franciscan University of Steubenville
Franklin and Marshall College
Franklin College
Franklin Pierce College
Franklin Pierce Law Center
Franklin University
Freed-Hardeman University
Freewill Baptist Bible College
Fresno Pacific University
Friends University
Frostburg State University
Fuller Theological Seminary
Fullerton College
Furman University
– G –
Gallaudet University
Gannon University
Gardner-Webb University
Geneva College
George Fox University
George Mason University
George Washington University
Georgetown College
Georgetown University
Georgian Court College
Georgia College and State University
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Perimeter College
Georgia Southern University
Georgia Southwestern State University
Georgia State University
Georgian Court College
Gettysburg College
Glenville State College
Globe Institute of Technology
Goddard College
Golden Gate University
Golden State Baptist College
Goldey-Beacom College
Gonzaga University
Gooding Institute of Nurse Anesthesia
Gordon College
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary
Goshen College
Goucher College
Governors State University
Grace College
Grace University
Graceland University
The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Grambling State University
Grand Canyon University
Grand Valley State University
Grand View College
Grantham University
Green Mountain College
Greenleaf University
Greensboro College
Greenville College
Greenwich University
Grinnell College
Grove City College
Guilford College
Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota
Gwynedd-Mercy College
– H –
Hamilton College
Hamilton University
Hamline University
Hampden-Sydney College
Hampshire College
Hampton University
Hannibal-LaGrange College
Hanover College
Hardin-Simmons University
Harding University
Harris-Stowe State College
Hartwick College
Harvard University
Harvey Mudd College
Hastings College
Haverford College
Hawaii Pacific University
Hebrew College
Heidelberg College
Henderson State Univerisity
Hendrix College
Henry Cogswell College
Heritage College
Hesser College
Hesston College
High Point University
Hilbert College
Hillsdale College
Hillsdale Freewill Baptist College
Hiram College
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Hofstra University
Hollins University
Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Indiana
Holy Family College
Hood College
Hope College
Houghton College
Houston Baptist University
Howard Payne University
Howard University
Humboldt State University
Hunter College
Huntingdon College
Huntington College
Huron University
Husson College
Huston-Tillotson College
– I –
Idaho State University
Illinois College
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois State University
Illinois Wesleyan University
Immaculata College
Indiana Institute Technologyy
Indiana State University
Indiana Wesleyan University
Indiana University
Indiana University Northwest
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Indiana University at South Bend
Indiana University Southeast
Indiana University – Purdue University, Columbus
Indiana University – Purdue University, Fort Wayne
Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis
Institute for Christian Works
Institute of Computer Technology
Institute of Paper Science and Technology
Institute for Transpersonal Psychology
Inter American University of Puerto Rico
International College
International Fine Arts College
International Institue of the Americas
International Reform University
Iona College
Iowa State University
Iowa Wesleyan College
Ithaca College
– J –
Jackson State University
Jacksonville State University
Jacksonville University
James Madison University
Jamestown College
Jarvis Christian College
Jewish Theological Seminary
John Brown University
John Carroll University
John F. Kennedy University
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
The Johns Hopkins University
Johnson Bible College
Johnson and Wales University
Johnson C. Smith University
Joint Military Intelligence College
Jones College
Jones International University
Judson College, Marion AL
Judson College, Elgin IL
The Julliard School
Juniata College
– K –
Kalamazoo College
Kansas City Art Institute
Kansas Newman College
Kansas State University
Kansas Wesleyan University
Kean University
Keck Graduate Institute
Keene State College
Keiser College
Kennedy-Western University
Kennesaw State University
Kent State University
Kentucky Christian College
Kentucky State University
Kentucky Wesleyan College
Kenyon College
Kettering University
Keuka College
King College
King’s College, Wilkes-Barre, PA
The King’s College, New York City, NY
Knox College
Knox Theological Seminary
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
– L –
La Roche College
La Salle University
La Sierra University
Lafayette College
LaGrange College
Lake Erie College
Lake Forest College
Lake Superior State University
Lakeland College
Lamar University
Lambuth University
Lancaster Bible College
Lancaster Theological Seminary
Lander University
Landmark College
Langston University
Lane College
Lasell College
Lawrence Technological University
Lawrence University
Le Moyne College
Lebanon Valley College
Lee College
Lee University
Lees-McRae College
Lehigh Univervsity
LeMoyne-Owen College
Lenoir-Rhyne College
Lenox Institute of Water Technology
Lesley University
LeTourneau University
Lewis & Clark College
Lewis-Clark State College
Lewis University
Liberty University
Life University
Limestone College
Lincoln Christian College and Seminary
Lincoln College
Lincoln Memorial University
Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri
Lincoln University, San Francisco California
Lincoln University of Pennsylvania
Lindenwood College
Lindsey Wilson College
Linfield College
Lipscomb University
Lock Haven University
Logan College of Chiropractic
Loma Linda University
Long Island University
Longwood College
Loras College
Louisburg College
Louisiana Baptist Universty
Louisiana College
Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
Louisiana State University at Shreveport
Louisiana Tech University
Loyola College, Baltimore
Loyola Marymount University
Loyola University, Chicago
Loyola University, New Orleans
Lubbock Christian University
Luther College
Luther Seminary
Lutheran Bible Institute
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg
Lycoming College
Lyme Academy of Fine Arts
Lynchburg College
Lyndon State College
Lynn University
Lyon College
– M –
Macalester College
MacMurray College
Madonna University
Maharishi University of Management
Maine College of Art
Maine Maritime Academy
Malone College
Manchester College
Manhattan College
Manhattanville College
Mansfield University
Maranatha Baptist Bible College
Marian College
Marietta College
Marlboro College
Marist College
Marquette University
Mars Hill College
Marshall University
Mary Baldwin College
Mary Washington College
Maryland Institute, College of Art
Marylhurst University
Marymount College
Marymount Manhattan College
Marymount University
Maryville College
Maryville University of Saint Louis
Marywood University
Massachusetts College of Art
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Maritime Academy
Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology
The Master’s College
The Mayo Foundation
Mayville State University
The McGregor School of Antioch University
McKendree College
McMurry University
McNeese State University
MCP Hahnemann University
McPherson College
Medaille College
Medical College of Georgia
Medical College of Ohio
Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann University
Medical College of Wisconsin
Medical University of South Carolina
Meharry Medical College
Menlo College
Mercer University
Mercy College
Mercy College of Health Sciences
Mercyhurst College
Meredith College
Merrimack College
Mesa State College
Messiah College
Methodist College
Methodist Theological School in Ohio
Metropolitan College
Metropolitan State College of Denver
Metropolitan State University
Miami Christian University
Miami University of Ohio
Michigan State University
Michigan Technological University
Mid-America Nazarene University
Middle Georgia College
Middle Tennessee State University
Middlebury College
Midwestern Baptist College
Midwestern State University
Miles College
Millersville University
Milligan College
Millikin University
Mills College
Millsaps College
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Minneapolis College of Art and Design
Minnesota State University Mankato
Minnesota State University Moorhead
Minot State University
Minot State University–Bottineau
Mississippi College
Mississippi State University
Mississippi University for Women
Mississippi Valley State University
Missouri Baptist College
Missouri Southern State College
Missouri Tech
Missouri Valley College
Missouri Western State College
Mitchell College
Molloy College
Monmouth College, Monmouth Illinois
Monmouth University, West Long Branch New Jersey
Monroe College
Montana State University-Billings
Montana State University-Bozeman
Montana State University College of Technology, Great Falls
Montana State University-Northern Havre
Montana Tech
Montclair State University
Monterey College of Law
Monterey Institute of International Studies
Montreat College
Moravian College
Morehead State University
Morehouse College
Morehouse School of Medicine
Morgan State University
Morningside College
Morris Brown College
Morris College
Mount Aloysius College
Mount Holyoke College
Mount Ida College
Mount Marty College
Mount Mary College
Mount Mercy College
Mount Olive College
Mount St. Clare College
Mount St. Mary’s College and Seminary, Emmitsburg Maryland
Mount St. Mary’s College, Los Angeles California
Mount Senario College
Mt. Sierra College
Mount Union College
Mount Vernon Nazarene College
Mountain State University
Muhlenberg College
Murray State University
Muskingum College
– N –
Naropa University
National American University
National Defense University
The National Graduate School
National-Louis University
National Technological University
National University
The Naval Postgraduate School
Nazarene Bible College
Nazareth College
Nebraska Methodist College
Nebraska Wesleyan University
Neumann College
New Brunswick Theological Seminary
New College of Florida
New England College of Optometry
New England Conservatory of Music
New England Institute of Technology
New England School of Communications
New Jersey City University
New Jersey Institute of Technology
New Mexico Highlands University
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
New Mexico State University
New School University
New World School of the Arts
New York Academy of Art
New York Institute of Technology
New York Law School
New York University
Newberry College
Newport University
Niagara University
Nicholls State University
Nichols College
Norfolk State University
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
North Carolina Central University
North Carolina School of the Arts
North Carolina State University
North Carolina Wesleyan College
North Central College
North Central University
North Dakota State University–Fargo
North Georgia College and State University, the Military College of Georgia
North Greenville College
North Park University
Northeastern Illinois University
Northeastern University
Northeastern State University
Northern Arizona University
Northern Illinois University
Northern Kentucky University
Northern Michigan University
Northern State University
Northland College
Northwest Christian College
Northwest College
Northwest College of Art
Northwest Missouri State University
Northwest Nazarene University
Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Northwestern State University, Louisiana
Northwestern College, Iowa
Northwestern College, Saint Paul, MN
Northwestern Michigan College
Northwestern University
Northwood University
Norwich University
Notre Dame College of Ohio
Notre Dame de Namur University
Nova Southeastern University
Nyack College
– O –
Oakland University
Oakwood College
Oberlin College
Occidental College
Oglethorpe University
Ohio Dominican College
Ohio Northern University
The Ohio State University
Ohio University
Ohio Valley College
Ohio Wesleyan University
Oklahoma Baptist University
Oklahoma Christian University
Oklahoma City University
Oklahoma Panhandle State University
Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University Tulsa
Oklahoma Wesleyan University
Old Dominion University
Olin College of Engineering
Olivet College
Olivet Nazarene University
The Open University
Oral Roberts University
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology
Oregon Health Sciences University
Oregon Institute of Technology
Oregon State University
Otterbein College
Ottawa University
Ouachita Baptist University
Our Lady of the Lake University
Our Lady of Holy Cross College
– P –
Pace University
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
Pacific Lutheran University
Pacific Northwest College of Art
Pacific States University
Pacific Union College
Pacific University
Paine College
Palm Beach Atlantic College
Palmer College of Chiropractic
Park University
Parsons School of Design
Patten College
Patrick Henry College
Paul Quinn College
Paul Smith’s College
Peace College
Pennsylvania College of Technology
The Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University at Altoona
Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley
Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg
Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton
Pensacola Christian College
Pepperdine University
Peru State College
Pfeiffer University
Pickering University
Piedmont College
Pine Manor College
Pittsburg State University
Philadelphia Biblical University
Philadelphia University
Philander Smith College
Phillips University
Pitzer College
Plymouth State University, Plymouth New Hampshire
Point Loma Nazarene College
Point Park College
Polytechnic University of New York
Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
Pomona College
Portland State University
Potomac College
Prairie View A & M University
Pratt Institute
Presbyterian College
Prescott College
Preston University
Princeton University
Principia College
Providence College
Purdue University
– Q –
Queens College
Quincy University
Quinnipiac College
– R –
Radford University
Ramapo College of New Jersey
Randolph-Macon College
Randolph-Macon Woman’s College
Reed College
Regent University
Regis College
Regis University
Reinhardt College
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rhode Island College
Rhode Island School of Design
Rhodes College
Rice University
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Rider University
Ringling School of Art and Design
Ripon College
Rivier College
Roanoke College
Robert Morris College, Illinois
Robert Morris College, Pittsburgh, PA
Roberts Wesleyan College
Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester College
The Rockefeller University
Rockford College
Rockhurst University
Rocky Mountain College
Roger Williams University
Rogers State University
Rollins College
Roosevelt University
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Rosemont College
Rowan University
Rush University
Russell Sage College
Rust College
Rutgers University
Rutgers University-Camden
Rutgers University-Newark
Ryokan College
– S –
Sacred Heart University
Sacred Heart University, Puerto Rico
The Sage Colleges
Saginaw Valley State University
Saint Ambrose University
Saint Andrews Presbyterian College
Saint Anselm College
Saint Anthony College of Nursing
Saint Augustine’s College
Saint Bonaventure University
Saint Cloud State University
Saint Edwards University
Saint Francis College, Brooklyn Heights, New York
Saint Francis College, Fort Wayne, Indiana
Saint Francis College, Loretto, Pennsylvania
St. Gregory’s University
Saint John Fisher College
Saint John’s College
Saint John’s University, Collegeville Minnesota
Saint John’s University, Jamaica New York
Saint Joseph College
Saint Joseph’s College
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
Saint Joseph’s University
Saint Lawrence University
Saint Leo University
Saint Louis University
Saint Martin’s College
Saint Mary College
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College
Saint Mary’s College
Saint Mary’s College of California
Saint Mary’s College of Maryland
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota
Saint Mary’s University of San Antonio
Saint Meinrad’s School of Theology
Saint Michael’s College
Saint Norbert College
Saint Olaf College
Saint Paul’s College
Saint Peter’s College
Saint Rose College
Saint Thomas Aquinas College
Saint Thomas University
Saint Vincent College
Saint Xavier University
Salem College
Salem International University
Salem State College
Salisbury State University
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Salve Regina University
Sam Houston State University
Samford University
Samuel Merritt College
San Diego State University
San Francisco Art Institute
San Francisco Law School
San Francisco State University
San Joaquin College of Law
San Jose Christian College
San Jose State University
Santa Clara University
Sarah Lawrence College
Saratoga University School of Law
Sarah Lawrence College
Savannah College of Art and Design
Savannah State University
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center
Schiller International University
School for International Training
School of the Art Institute of Chicago
School of Islamic and Social Sciences
School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
School of the Visual Arts
Schreiner College
Scripps College
The Scripps Research Institute
Seattle Pacific University
Seattle University
Seton Hall University
Seton Hill College
Shasta Bible College
Shawnee State University
Shaw University
Sheffield School of Interior Design
Sheldon Jackson College
Shenandoah University
Shepherd College
Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic
Shimer College
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Shorter College
Siena College
Siena Heights University
Silver Lake College
Simmons College
Simon’s Rock College
Simpson College, Redding California
Simpson College, Indianola Iowa
Skidmore College
Slippery Rock University
Smith Chapel Bible College
Smith College
Soka University of America
Sonoma State University
South Carolina State University
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
South Dakota State University
South Pacific University
South Texas College of Law
Southampton College
Southeast College of Technology
Southeast Missouri State University
Southeastern College
Southeastern Louisiana University
Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Southeastern University
Southern Adventist University
Southern Arkansas University
Southern California University of Health Sciences
Southern California University of Professional Studies
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville
Southern Illinois University Medical School at Springsfield
Southern Methodist University
Southern Nazarene University
Southern New Hampshire University
Southern Oregon State College
Southern Polytechnic State Univerisity
Southern Vermont College
Southern Virginia University
Southern Wesleyan University
Southern University, Baton Rouge
Southern University, New Orleans
Southern University, Shreveport-Bossier City
Southern Utah University
Southwest Baptist University
Southwest Bible College and Seminary
Southwest Missouri State University
Southwest State University
Southwest Texas State University
Southwestern Adventist University
Southwestern Assemblies of God University
Southwestern College
Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Southwestern University
Southwestern University School of Law
Spalding University
Spartanburg Methodist College
Spelman College
Spertus College
Spring Arbor College
Spring Hill College
Springfield College
Stamford International College
Stanford University
State University of New York at Albany
State University of New York at Binghamton
State University of New York at Buffalo
State University of New York at Oswego
State University of New York at Stony Brook
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Cobleskill
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville
State University of New York College at Brockport
State University of New York College at Buffalo (Buffalo State College)
State University of New York College at Cortland
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
State University of New York College at Farmingdale
State University of New York College at Fredonia
State University of New York College at Geneseo
State University of New York College Maritime College at Fort Schuyler
State University of New York College at New Paltz
State University of New York College at Old Westbury
State University of New York College at Oneonta
State University of New York College at Oswego
State University of New York College at Plattsburgh
State University of New York College at Potsdam
State University of New York College at Purchase
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Canton
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Delhi
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome
State University of West Georgia
The Stefan University
Stephen F. Austin State University
Stephens College
Sterling College, Sterling Kansas
Sterling College, Kansas
Sterling College, Vermont
Stetson University
Stevens-Henager College
Stevens Institute of Technology
Stillman College
Stonehill College
Strayer University
Suffolk University
Sul Ross State University
Summit University of Louisiana
Susquehanna University
Swarthmore College
Sweet Briar College
Syracuse University
– T –
Tabor College
Talladega College
Tarleton State University
Taylor University
Teachers College
Teikyo Marycrest University
Teikyo Post University
Temple University
Tennessee State University
Tennessee Technological University
Tennessee Temple University
Tennessee Wesleyan College
Texas A&M International University
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University, Commerce
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
Texas A&M University, Galveston
Texas A&M University, Kingsville
Texas A&M University, Texarkana
Texas Christian University
Texas Lutheran University
Texas Southern University
Texas Tech University
Texas Wesleyan University
Texas Woman’s University
Thiel College
Thomas Aquinas College, Santa Paula CA
Thomas Edison State College
Thomas College
Thomas Cooley Law School
Thomas More College
Thomas Jefferson University
Toccoa Falls College
Tougaloo College
Touro College
Towson University
The Transworld University
Transylvania University
Trevecca Nazarene University
Trinity Baptist College
Trinity Christian College
Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut
Trinity College of Florida
Trinity College, Washington DC
Trinity College of Vermont
Trinity International University
Trinity University
Tri-State University
Troy State University
Troy State University – Dothan
Truman State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
Tusculum College
Tuskegee University
– U –
Uniformed Services Universty of the Health Sciences
Union College, Barbourville KY
Union College
Union Theological Seminary
Union University
The Union Institute
United States Air Force Academy
United States Coast Guard Academy
United States Merchant Marine Academy
United States Military Academy
United States Naval Academy
United States Open University
United States Sports Academy
Unity College
University of Action Learning at Boulder
University of Advancing Technology
University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alabama, Birmingham
University of Alabama, Huntsville
University of Alaska, Anchorage
University of Alaska, Fairbanks
University of Alaska, Southeast
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
University of Arkansas at Monticello
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of the Arts
University of Baltimore
University of Bridgeport
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Davis
University of California, Hastings College of Law
University of California, Irvine
University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Merced
University of California, Riverside
University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Francisco
University of California, Santa Barbara
University of California, Santa Cruz
University of Central Arkansas
University of Central Florida
University of Central Oklahoma
University of Charleston
University of Chicago
University of Cincinnati
University of Colorado
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
University of Colorado, Denver
University of Connecticut
University of Dallas
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
University of Denver
University of Detroit Mercy
University of the District of Columbia
University of Dubuque
University of Evansville
University of Findlay
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Great Falls
University of Guam
University of Hartford
University of Hawai`i
University of Hawai`i, Hilo
University of Hawai`i, West O`ahu
University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine
University of Houston
University of Houston, Clear Lake
University of Houston, Downtown
University of Houston, Victoria
University of Idaho
University of the Incarnate Word
University of Indianapolis
University of Illinois at Chicago
University of Illinois at Springfield
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Iowa
University of Judaism
University of Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center
University of Kentucky
University of La Vernee
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
University of Louisiana at Monroe
University of Louisville
University of Maine
University of Maine at Fort Kent
University of Maine at Presque Isle
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
University of Maryland Baltimore County
University of Maryland at Baltimore
University of Maryland at College Park
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
University of Maryland University College
University of Massachusetts at Amherst
University of Massachusetts at Boston
University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Massachusetts Medical School
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
University of Memphis
University of Miami
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
University of Michigan-Dearborn
University of Michigan-Flint
University of Minnesota-Crookston
University of Minnesota-Duluth
University of Minnesota-Morris
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri-Columbia
University of Missouri-Kansas City
University of Missouri-Rolla
University of Missouri-Saint Louis
University of Montana, Missoula
University of Montevallo
University of Natural Medicine
University of Nebraska, Kearney
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Nebraska, Omaha
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
University of Nevada, Reno
University of New England
University of New Hampshire, Durham
University of New Haven
University of New Mexico
University of New Orleans
University of Newport
University of North Alabama
University of North Carolina at Asheville
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
University of North Carolina at Pembroke
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
University of North Dakota
University of North Dakota–Lake Region
University of North Florida
University of North Texas
University of Northern Colorado
University of Northern Iowa
University of Northern Washington
University of Notre Dame
University of Oklahoma
University of Oregon
University of Orlando
University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Science
University of the Ozarks
University of the Pacific
University of Pennsylvania
University of Phoenix
University of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
University of Pittsburgh at Greenburg
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
University of Portland
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras
University of Puget Sound
University of Redlands
University of Rhode Island
University of Richmond
University of Rio Grande
University of Rochester
University of St. Francis
University of St. Thomas, Houston
University of St. Thomas, Saint Paul
University of San Diego
University of San Francisco
University of Sarasota
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
University of Scranton
University of Sioux Falls
University of the South
University of South Alabama
University of South Carolina
University of South Carolina, Aiken
University of South Carolina, Beaufort
University of South Carolina, Spartanburg
University of South Dakota
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
University of Southern Colorado
University of Southern Indiana
University of Southern Maine
University of Southern Mississippi
University of Tampa
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
University of Tennessee, Martin
University of Texas at Arlington
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Brownsville
University of Texas at Dallas
University of Texas at El Paso
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
University of Texas Health Center at Tyler
University of Texas Medical Branch
University of Texas-Pan American
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
University of Texas at San Antonio
University of Texas at Tyler
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
University of Toledo
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
University of Vermont
University of the Virgin Islands
University of Virginia
University of Washington
University of West Alabama
University of West Florida
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
University of Wisconsin-Madison
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
University of Wisconsin-Parkside
University of Wisconsin-Platteville
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
University of Wisconsin-Stout
University of Wisconsin-Superior
University of Wisconsin-River Falls
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
University of Wyoming
Upper Iowa University
Urbana University
Ursinus College
Ursuline College
Utah State University
Utah Valley State College
Utica College
– V –
Valdosta State University
Valley City State University
Valparaiso University
Vanderbilt University
Vanguard University
Vassar College
Vennard College
Vermont Technical College
Villa Julie College
Villanova University
Virginia Commonwealth University
Virginia Intermont College
Virginia International University
Virginia Military Institute
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Virginia State University
Virginia Union University
Virginia University of Lynchburg
Virginia Wesleyan College
Viterbo College
Voorhees College
– W –
Wabash College
Wagner College
Wake Forest University
Warner Pacific College
Wartburg College
Walden University
Walla Walla College
Walsh University
Warren Wilson College
Washburn University
Washington & Jefferson College
Washington & Lee University
Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary
Washington College
Washington State University
Washington University in Saint Louis
Wayland Baptist University
Wayne State College
Wayne State University
Waynesburg College
Webb Institute
Weber State University
Webster University
Webster University North Florida
Wellesley College
Wells College
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Wesley College
Wesleyan College
Wesleyan University
West Coast University
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
West Liberty State College
West Texas A&M University
West Virginia State College
West Virginia University
West Virginia University Parkersburg
West Virginia Wesleyan College
Western Baptist College
Western Carolina University
Western Connecticut State University
Western Governors University
Western Illinois University
Western International University
Western Kentucky University
Western Maryland College
Western Michigan University
Western Montana College
Western New England College
Western New Mexico University
Western Oregon University
Western State College
Western State University College of Law
Western States Chiropractic College
Western University of Health Sciences
Western Washington University
Westfield State College
Westminster College, Fulton Missouri
Westminster College, New Wilmington Pennsylvania
Westminster College, Salt Lake City
Westminster Theological Seminary
Westminster Theological Seminary in California
Westmont College
Westwood College of Technology
Wheaton College, Wheaton Illinois
Wheaton College, Massachusetts
Wheeling Jesuit University
Wheelock College
Whitman College
Whittier College
Whitworth College
Wichita State University
Widener University
Wilberforce University
Wilkes University
Willamette University
William Howard Taft University
William Carey International University
William Jewell College
William Mitchell College of Law
William Paterson University
William Penn College
William Woods University
Williams Baptist College
Williams College
Wilmington College, New Castle Delaware
Wilmington College, Wilmington Ohio
Wilson College
Wingate University
Winston-Salem State University
Winona State University
Winthrop University
Wisconsin Lutheran College
Wittenberg University
Wofford College
Woodbury University
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester State College
Wright Institute
Wright State University
– X –
Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
Xavier University of Louisiana
– Y –
Yale University
Yeshiva University
York College, York Nebraska
York College of Pennsylvania
Youngstown State University
– Z –

‘Z’ HAS NO QUALIFIED SCHOOLS