App Culture: Set on Mindfulness of Mental Health

Never before have we seen such a surge in apps focused specifically on mental health, mindfulness, and stress reduction.
The popular meditation app Headspace and our Apples App of the Year, Calm, both had major updates this year that expanded their breadth considerably, taking on topics such as mindfulness for children and better sleep. The creators of the new app Lake: Artists’ Coloring Books tackle destressing a bit more actively. It offers an ever-changing selection of drawings, created by burgeoning illustrators and artists, that you can color in—which is perhaps the most accessible meditation of all.
Several apps leverage the latest research on cognitive behavioral therapy to help address larger issues. Although the apps are not a substitute for professional treatment, they do put a host of resources at your fingertips. Pacifica provides a self-help toolkit and access to a support group whenever you need it, while Joyable lets you work with a trained coach via text, email, or phone.

 

Eligible Colleges and Universities of Intervention in America

 

 

 Listing of Membership-eligible institutions for the Student Mental Health Policy Alliance
– A –
Abilene Christian University
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College 
Academy of Art University 
Adams State College 
Adelphi University 
Adrian College 
Agnes Scott College 
Air Force Institute of Technology 
Air University 
Alabama A&M University
Alabama State University 
Alaska Bible College 
Alaska Pacific University 
Albany State University 
Albertson College of Idaho 
Albertus Magnus College 
Albion College 
Albright College 
Alcorn State University 
Alderson-Broaddus College 
Alexandria University 
Alfred State College, State University of New York College of Technology 
Alfred University 
Allegheny College 
Allen College 
Allen University 
Allentown College 
Alliant International University 
Alma College 
Alvernia College 
Alverno College 
Amberton University 
American Bible College and Seminary 
American Coastline University 
The American College 
American Global University 
American Graduate School of International Management 
American Institute for Computer Sciences 
American InterContinental University 
American International College 
American Military University 
American Public University 
American Schools of Professional Psychology 
American University 
American University of Hawaii 
Amherst College 
Anderson College 
Anderson University 
Andrew Jackson University 
Andrews University 
Angelo State University 
Anna Maria College 
Antioch College 
Antioch New England Graduate School 
Antioch University Los Angeles 
Antioch University Santa Barbara 
Antioch University Seattle 
Antioch University Yellow Springs OH 
Apache University 
Appalachian School of Law 
Appalachian State University 
Aquinas College 
Arcadia University 
Arizona International College 
Arizona State University 
Arizona State University West 
Arkansas State University 
Arkansas Tech University 
Arlington Baptist College 
Armstrong State University 
Art Center College of Design 
The Art Institute of Phoenix 
The Art Institute of Southern California 
The Art Institute of Washington 
Asbury College 
Ashland University 
Assumption College 
Athena University 
Athens State College 
Atlantic Union College 
Auburn University 
Auburn University, Montgomery 
Audrey Cohen College 
Augsburg College 
Augusta State University 
Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois 
Augustana College, Sioux Falls South Dakota 
Aurora University 
Austin College 
Austin Peay State University 
Averett College 
Avila College 
Azusa Pacific University
– B –
Babson College 
Baker College 
Baker University 
Baldwin-Wallace College 
Ball State University 
Baltimore Hebrew University 
Bank Street College of Education 
Baptist Bible College and Seminary 
The Baptist College of Florida 
Bard College 
Barclay College 
Barnard College 
Barrington University 
Barry University 
Barton College 
Bastyr University 
Bates College 
Bay Path College 
Baylor College of Dentistry 
Baylor College of Medicine 
Baylor University 
Belhaven College 
Bellarmine College 
Bellevue University 
Belmont Abbey College 
Belmont University 
Beloit College 
Bemidji State Univeristy 
Benedict College 
Benedictine College 
Benedictine University 
Bennett College 
Bennington College 
Bentley College 
Berea College 
Berkeley College 
Berklee College of Music 
Berry College 
Bethany Bible College 
Bethany College, West Virginia 
Bethany College, Lindsborg, KS 
Bethany College, Scotts Valley, CA 
Bethany Lutheran College 
Bethel College and Seminary, Saint Paul Minnesota 
Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee 
Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana 
Bethel College, Newton, Kansas 
Bethune-Cookman College 
Bienville University 
Biola University 
Birmingham-Southern College 
Black Hills State University 
Blackburn College 
Bloomfield College 
Bloomsburg University 
Bluefield College 
Bluefield State College 
Bluffton College 
Bob Jones University 
Boise State University 
The Boston Architectural Center 
Boston College 
Boston Conservatory 
Boston University 
Bowdoin College 
Bowie State University 
Bowling Green State University 
Bradford College 
Bradley University 
Brandeis University 
Brenau University 
Brewton-Parker College 
Briar Cliff University 
Bridgewater College 
Bridgewater State College 
Brigham Young University 
Brigham Young University Hawaii 
Brigham Young University Idaho 
Brooklyn College 
Brooklyn Law School 
Brown University 
Bryant College 
Bryn Mawr College 
Bucknell University 
Buena Vista University 
Buffalo State 
Butler University
– C –
C. R. Drew University of Medicine and Science 
Caldwell College 
California Baptist University 
California Coast University 
California College of Arts and Crafts 
California College for Health Sciences 
California College of Podiatric Medicine 
California Institute of the Arts 
California Institute for Human Science 
California Institute of Integral Studies 
California Institute of Technology 
California Lutheran University 
The California Maritime Academy 
California National University for Advanced Studies 
California Pacific University 
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo 
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona 
California State University, Bakersfield 
California State University, Channel Islands 
California State University, Chico 
California State University, Dominguez Hills 
California State University, Fresno 
California State University, Fullerton 
California State University, Hayward 
California State University, Long Beach 
California State University, Los Angeles 
California State University, Monterey 
California State University, Northridge 
California State University, Sacramento 
California State University, San Bernardino 
California State University, San Marcos 
California State University, Stanislaus 
California University of Pennsylvania 
Calumet College of St. Joseph 
Calvin College 
Cambridge College 
Cameron University 
Campbell University 
Campbellsville University 
Canisius College 
Canyon College 
Capella University 
Capital University 
Cardinal Stritch University 
Carleton College 
Carlow College 
Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Carnegie Mellon University 
Carroll College, Helena, MT 
Carroll College, Waukesha, WI 
Carson-Newman College 
Carthage College 
Case Western Reserve University 
Castleton State College 
Catawba College 
The Catholic University of America 
Cazenovia College 
Cedar Crest College 
Cedarville University 
Centenary College of Louisiana 
Centenary College of New Jersey 
Center for Creative Studies College of Art and Design 
Central College 
Central Connecticut State University 
Central Methodist College 
Central Michigan University 
Central Missouri State University 
Central State University 
Central Washington University 
Centre College, Danville Kentucky 
Century University 
Chadron State College 
Chadwick University 
Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii 
Champlain College 
Chapman University 
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science 
Charleston Southern University 
Charter Oak State College 
Chatham College 
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania 
Chicago-Kent College of Law 
Chicago School of Professional Psychology 
Chicago State University 
Chowan College 
Christendom College 
Christian Bible College and Seminary 
Christian Brothers University 
Christopher Newport University 
Circleville Bible College 
The Citadel 
City Colleges of Chicago 
City University, Bellevue Washington 
City University of Los Angeles 
City University of New York 
Claflin College 
Claremont Graduate University 
Claremont McKenna College 
Clarion University 
Clark Atlanta University 
Clark College 
Clark University 
Clarke College 
Clarkson University 
Clayton College and State University 
Clayton College of Natural Health 
Clemson University 
Clear Creek Baptist Bible College 
Cleary College 
Cleveland Chiropractic College 
Cleveland Institute of Art 
Cleveland Institute of Music 
Cleveland State University 
Clinch Valley College 
Coastal Carolina University 
Coe College 
Cogswell Polytechnical College 
Coker College 
Colby College 
Colby-Sawyer College 
Colgate University 
Coleman College 
College of Aeronautics 
College of the Atlantic 
College of Charleston 
College of Eastern Utah 
College of the Holy Cross 
The College of Insurance 
College for Lifelong Learning 
The College of Metaphysical Studies 
College Misericordia 
College of Mount Saint Joseph 
The College of New Jersey 
College of New Rochelle 
College of Notre Dame of Maryland 
College of the Ozarks 
College of Saint Benedict 
College of Saint Catherine 
College of Saint Elizabeth 
College of Saint Mary 
College of Saint Scholastica 
The College of Saint Thomas More 
The College of Saint Rose 
The College of Santa Fe 
College of the Southwest 
College of William and Mary 
The College of Wooster 
Colorado Christian University 
Colorado College 
Colorado School of Mines 
Colorado State University 
Colorado Technical University 
Columbia College 
Columbia College of Missouri 
Columbia International University 
Columbia Southern University 
Columbia Union College 
Columbia University 
Columbus State University 
Concord College 
Concordia College, Ann Arbor Michigan 
Concordia College, Austin Texas 
Concordia College, Bronxville, New York 
Concordia College, Moorhead Minnesota 
Concordia College, Saint Paul Minnesota 
Concordia College, Selma Alabama 
Concordia College, Seward Nebraska 
Concordia University, Irvine California 
Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin 
Concordia University, Portland Oregon 
Concordia University, River Forest Illinois 
Connecticut College 
Converse College 
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art 
Coppin State College 
Cornell College, Iowa 
Corcoran College of Art + Design 
Cornell University 
Cornerstone University 
Cornish College of the Arts 
Cottey College 
Covenant College 
Creighton University 
Crichton College 
Crown College 
Culver-Stockton College 
Cumberland College 
Cumberland University 
Curry College 
Cypress College
– D –
Daemen College 
Dakota State University 
Dakota Wesleyan University 
Dallas Baptist University 
Dallas Theological Seminary 
Dana College 
Daniel Webster College 
Dartmouth College 
Davenport College 
Davidson College 
Davis and Elkins College 
Dawson College 
Dean College 
Deep Springs College 
Defiance College 
Delaware State University 
Delaware Valley College 
Delta College 
Delta State University 
Denison University 
Denver Seminary 
DePaul University 
DePauw University 
DeSales University 
DeVry University 
DeVry University, Columbus 
Diablo Valley College 
Dickinson College 
Dickinson State University 
Dillard University 
Dixie State College 
Doane College 
Dominican College 
Dominican University 
Dominican University of California 
Dordt College 
Dowling College 
Drake University 
Drew University 
Drexel University 
Drury University 
Duke University 
Duquesne University 
D’Youville College
– E –
Earlham College 
East Carolina University 
East Central University, Ada Oklahoma 
East Stroudsburg State University 
East Tennessee State University 
East Texas Baptist University 
East-West University 
Eastern College 
Eastern Connecticut State University 
Eastern Illinois University 
Eastern Kentucky University 
Eastern Mennonite University 
Eastern Michigan University 
Eastern Nazarene College 
Eastern New Mexico University 
Eastern Oregon University 
Eastern Washington University 
Eckerd College 
Edgewood College 
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania 
Edward Waters College 
Elizabeth City State University 
Elizabethtown College 
Elmhurst College 
Elmira College 
Elms College 
Elon University 
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University 
Emerson College 
Emmanuel College 
Emmaus Bible College 
Emory University 
Emory & Henry College 
Empire State College 
Emporia State University 
Endicott College 
Erskine College 
Eureka College 
Evangel University 
Everglades College 
Evergreen State College 
Excelsior College
– F –
Fairfield University 
Fairleigh Dickinson University 
Fairmont State College 
Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary 
Faulkner University 
Fayetteville State University 
Felician College 
Ferris State University 
Ferrum College 
Fielding Graduate Institute 
Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School 
Fisk University 
Fitchburg State College 
Flagler College 
Florida A & M University 
Florida Atlantic University 
Florida Christian College 
Florida Gulf Coast University 
Florida Institute of Technology 
Florida International University 
Florida Memorial College 
Florida Metropolitan University 
Florida Southern College 
Florida State University 
Fontbonne College 
Fordham University 
Forest Institute of Professional Psychology 
Fort Hays State University 
Fort Lewis College 
Fort Valley State University 
Framingham State College 
Francis Marion University 
Franciscan University of Steubenville 
Franklin and Marshall College 
Franklin College 
Franklin Pierce College 
Franklin Pierce Law Center 
Franklin University 
Freed-Hardeman University 
Freewill Baptist Bible College 
Fresno Pacific University 
Friends University 
Frostburg State University 
Fuller Theological Seminary 
Fullerton College 
Furman University
– G –
Gallaudet University 
Gannon University 
Gardner-Webb University 
Geneva College 
George Fox University 
George Mason University 
George Washington University 
Georgetown College 
Georgetown University 
Georgian Court College 
Georgia College and State University 
Georgia Institute of Technology 
Georgia Perimeter College 
Georgia Southern University 
Georgia Southwestern State University 
Georgia State University 
Georgian Court College 
Gettysburg College 
Glenville State College 
Globe Institute of Technology 
Goddard College 
Golden Gate University 
Golden State Baptist College 
Goldey-Beacom College 
Gonzaga University 
Gooding Institute of Nurse Anesthesia 
Gordon College 
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 
Goshen College 
Goucher College 
Governors State University 
Grace College 
Grace University 
Graceland University 
The Graduate Center, City University of New York 
Grambling State University 
Grand Canyon University 
Grand Valley State University 
Grand View College 
Grantham University 
Green Mountain College 
Greenleaf University 
Greensboro College 
Greenville College 
Greenwich University 
Grinnell College 
Grove City College 
Guilford College 
Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota 
Gwynedd-Mercy College
– H –
Hamilton College 
Hamilton University 
Hamline University 
Hampden-Sydney College 
Hampshire College 
Hampton University 
Hannibal-LaGrange College 
Hanover College 
Hardin-Simmons University 
Harding University 
Harris-Stowe State College 
Hartwick College 
Harvard University 
Harvey Mudd College 
Hastings College 
Haverford College 
Hawaii Pacific University 
Hebrew College 
Heidelberg College 
Henderson State Univerisity 
Hendrix College 
Henry Cogswell College 
Heritage College 
Hesser College 
Hesston College 
High Point University 
Hilbert College 
Hillsdale College 
Hillsdale Freewill Baptist College 
Hiram College 
Hobart and William Smith Colleges 
Hofstra University 
Hollins University 
Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Indiana 
Holy Family College 
Hood College 
Hope College 
Houghton College 
Houston Baptist University 
Howard Payne University 
Howard University 
Humboldt State University 
Hunter College 
Huntingdon College 
Huntington College 
Huron University 
Husson College 
Huston-Tillotson College
– I –
Idaho State University 
Illinois College 
Illinois Institute of Technology 
Illinois State University 
Illinois Wesleyan University 
Immaculata College 
Indiana Institute Technologyy 
Indiana State University 
Indiana Wesleyan University 
Indiana University 
Indiana University Northwest 
Indiana University of Pennsylvania 
Indiana University at South Bend 
Indiana University Southeast 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Columbus 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Fort Wayne 
Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis 
Institute for Christian Works 
Institute of Computer Technology 
Institute of Paper Science and Technology 
Institute for Transpersonal Psychology 
Inter American University of Puerto Rico 
International College 
International Fine Arts College 
International Institue of the Americas 
International Reform University 
Iona College 
Iowa State University 
Iowa Wesleyan College 
Ithaca College
– J –
Jackson State University 
Jacksonville State University 
Jacksonville University 
James Madison University 
Jamestown College 
Jarvis Christian College 
Jewish Theological Seminary 
John Brown University 
John Carroll University 
John F. Kennedy University 
John Jay College of Criminal Justice 
The Johns Hopkins University 
Johnson Bible College 
Johnson and Wales University 
Johnson C. Smith University 
Joint Military Intelligence College 
Jones College 
Jones International University 
Judson College, Marion AL 
Judson College, Elgin IL 
The Julliard School 
Juniata College
– K –
Kalamazoo College 
Kansas City Art Institute 
Kansas Newman College 
Kansas State University 
Kansas Wesleyan University 
Kean University 
Keck Graduate Institute 
Keene State College 
Keiser College 
Kennedy-Western University 
Kennesaw State University 
Kent State University 
Kentucky Christian College 
Kentucky State University 
Kentucky Wesleyan College 
Kenyon College 
Kettering University 
Keuka College 
King College 
King’s College, Wilkes-Barre, PA 
The King’s College, New York City, NY 
Knox College 
Knox Theological Seminary 
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
– L –
La Roche College 
La Salle University 
La Sierra University 
Lafayette College 
LaGrange College 
Lake Erie College 
Lake Forest College 
Lake Superior State University 
Lakeland College 
Lamar University 
Lambuth University 
Lancaster Bible College 
Lancaster Theological Seminary 
Lander University 
Landmark College 
Langston University 
Lane College 
Lasell College 
Lawrence Technological University 
Lawrence University 
Le Moyne College 
Lebanon Valley College 
Lee College 
Lee University 
Lees-McRae College 
Lehigh Univervsity 
LeMoyne-Owen College 
Lenoir-Rhyne College 
Lenox Institute of Water Technology 
Lesley University 
LeTourneau University 
Lewis & Clark College 
Lewis-Clark State College 
Lewis University 
Liberty University 
Life University 
Limestone College 
Lincoln Christian College and Seminary 
Lincoln College 
Lincoln Memorial University 
Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri 
Lincoln University, San Francisco California 
Lincoln University of Pennsylvania 
Lindenwood College 
Lindsey Wilson College 
Linfield College 
Lipscomb University 
Lock Haven University 
Logan College of Chiropractic 
Loma Linda University 
Long Island University 
Longwood College 
Loras College 
Louisburg College 
Louisiana Baptist Universty 
Louisiana College 
Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge 
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans 
Louisiana State University at Shreveport 
Louisiana Tech University 
Loyola College, Baltimore 
Loyola Marymount University 
Loyola University, Chicago 
Loyola University, New Orleans 
Lubbock Christian University 
Luther College 
Luther Seminary 
Lutheran Bible Institute 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg 
Lycoming College 
Lyme Academy of Fine Arts 
Lynchburg College 
Lyndon State College 
Lynn University 
Lyon College
– M –
Macalester College 
MacMurray College 
Madonna University 
Maharishi University of Management 
Maine College of Art 
Maine Maritime Academy 
Malone College 
Manchester College 
Manhattan College 
Manhattanville College 
Mansfield University 
Maranatha Baptist Bible College 
Marian College 
Marietta College 
Marlboro College 
Marist College 
Marquette University 
Mars Hill College 
Marshall University 
Mary Baldwin College 
Mary Washington College 
Maryland Institute, College of Art 
Marylhurst University 
Marymount College 
Marymount Manhattan College 
Marymount University 
Maryville College 
Maryville University of Saint Louis 
Marywood University 
Massachusetts College of Art 
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts 
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Massachusetts Maritime Academy 
Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology 
The Master’s College 
The Mayo Foundation 
Mayville State University 
The McGregor School of Antioch University 
McKendree College 
McMurry University 
McNeese State University 
MCP Hahnemann University 
McPherson College 
Medaille College 
Medical College of Georgia 
Medical College of Ohio 
Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann University 
Medical College of Wisconsin 
Medical University of South Carolina 
Meharry Medical College 
Menlo College 
Mercer University 
Mercy College 
Mercy College of Health Sciences 
Mercyhurst College 
Meredith College 
Merrimack College 
Mesa State College 
Messiah College 
Methodist College 
Methodist Theological School in Ohio 
Metropolitan College 
Metropolitan State College of Denver 
Metropolitan State University 
Miami Christian University 
Miami University of Ohio 
Michigan State University 
Michigan Technological University 
Mid-America Nazarene University 
Middle Georgia College 
Middle Tennessee State University 
Middlebury College 
Midwestern Baptist College 
Midwestern State University 
Miles College 
Millersville University 
Milligan College 
Millikin University 
Mills College 
Millsaps College 
Milwaukee School of Engineering 
Minneapolis College of Art and Design 
Minnesota State University Mankato 
Minnesota State University Moorhead 
Minot State University 
Minot State University–Bottineau 
Mississippi College 
Mississippi State University 
Mississippi University for Women 
Mississippi Valley State University 
Missouri Baptist College 
Missouri Southern State College 
Missouri Tech 
Missouri Valley College 
Missouri Western State College 
Mitchell College 
Molloy College 
Monmouth College, Monmouth Illinois 
Monmouth University, West Long Branch New Jersey 
Monroe College 
Montana State University-Billings 
Montana State University-Bozeman 
Montana State University College of Technology, Great Falls 
Montana State University-Northern Havre 
Montana Tech 
Montclair State University 
Monterey College of Law 
Monterey Institute of International Studies 
Montreat College 
Moravian College 
Morehead State University 
Morehouse College 
Morehouse School of Medicine 
Morgan State University 
Morningside College 
Morris Brown College 
Morris College 
Mount Aloysius College 
Mount Holyoke College 
Mount Ida College 
Mount Marty College 
Mount Mary College 
Mount Mercy College 
Mount Olive College 
Mount St. Clare College 
Mount St. Mary’s College and Seminary, Emmitsburg Maryland 
Mount St. Mary’s College, Los Angeles California 
Mount Senario College 
Mt. Sierra College 
Mount Union College 
Mount Vernon Nazarene College 
Mountain State University 
Muhlenberg College 
Murray State University 
Muskingum College
– N –
Naropa University 
National American University 
National Defense University 
The National Graduate School 
National-Louis University 
National Technological University 
National University 
The Naval Postgraduate School 
Nazarene Bible College 
Nazareth College 
Nebraska Methodist College 
Nebraska Wesleyan University 
Neumann College 
New Brunswick Theological Seminary 
New College of Florida 
New England College of Optometry 
New England Conservatory of Music 
New England Institute of Technology 
New England School of Communications 
New Jersey City University 
New Jersey Institute of Technology 
New Mexico Highlands University 
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology 
New Mexico State University 
New School University 
New World School of the Arts 
New York Academy of Art 
New York Institute of Technology 
New York Law School 
New York University 
Newberry College 
Newport University 
Niagara University 
Nicholls State University 
Nichols College 
Norfolk State University 
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University 
North Carolina Central University 
North Carolina School of the Arts 
North Carolina State University 
North Carolina Wesleyan College 
North Central College 
North Central University 
North Dakota State University–Fargo 
North Georgia College and State University, the Military College of Georgia 
North Greenville College 
North Park University 
Northeastern Illinois University 
Northeastern University 
Northeastern State University 
Northern Arizona University 
Northern Illinois University 
Northern Kentucky University 
Northern Michigan University 
Northern State University 
Northland College 
Northwest Christian College 
Northwest College 
Northwest College of Art 
Northwest Missouri State University 
Northwest Nazarene University 
Northwestern Oklahoma State University 
Northwestern State University, Louisiana 
Northwestern College, Iowa 
Northwestern College, Saint Paul, MN 
Northwestern Michigan College 
Northwestern University 
Northwood University 
Norwich University 
Notre Dame College of Ohio 
Notre Dame de Namur University 
Nova Southeastern University 
Nyack College
– O –
Oakland University 
Oakwood College 
Oberlin College 
Occidental College 
Oglethorpe University 
Ohio Dominican College 
Ohio Northern University 
The Ohio State University 
Ohio University 
Ohio Valley College 
Ohio Wesleyan University 
Oklahoma Baptist University 
Oklahoma Christian University 
Oklahoma City University 
Oklahoma Panhandle State University 
Oklahoma State University 
Oklahoma State University Tulsa 
Oklahoma Wesleyan University 
Old Dominion University 
Olin College of Engineering 
Olivet College 
Olivet Nazarene University 
The Open University 
Oral Roberts University 
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology 
Oregon Health Sciences University 
Oregon Institute of Technology 
Oregon State University 
Otterbein College 
Ottawa University 
Ouachita Baptist University 
Our Lady of the Lake University 
Our Lady of Holy Cross College
– P –
Pace University 
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine 
Pacific Lutheran University 
Pacific Northwest College of Art 
Pacific States University 
Pacific Union College 
Pacific University 
Paine College 
Palm Beach Atlantic College 
Palmer College of Chiropractic 
Park University 
Parsons School of Design 
Patten College 
Patrick Henry College 
Paul Quinn College 
Paul Smith’s College 
Peace College 
Pennsylvania College of Technology 
The Pennsylvania State University 
Pennsylvania State University at Altoona 
Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley 
Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg 
Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton 
Pensacola Christian College 
Pepperdine University 
Peru State College 
Pfeiffer University 
Pickering University 
Piedmont College 
Pine Manor College 
Pittsburg State University 
Philadelphia Biblical University 
Philadelphia University 
Philander Smith College 
Phillips University 
Pitzer College 
Plymouth State University, Plymouth New Hampshire 
Point Loma Nazarene College 
Point Park College 
Polytechnic University of New York 
Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico 
Pomona College 
Portland State University 
Potomac College 
Prairie View A & M University 
Pratt Institute 
Presbyterian College 
Prescott College 
Preston University 
Princeton University 
Principia College 
Providence College 
Purdue University
– Q –
Queens College 
Quincy University 
Quinnipiac College
– R –
Radford University 
Ramapo College of New Jersey 
Randolph-Macon College 
Randolph-Macon Woman’s College 
Reed College 
Regent University 
Regis College 
Regis University 
Reinhardt College 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
Rhode Island College 
Rhode Island School of Design 
Rhodes College 
Rice University 
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey 
Rider University 
Ringling School of Art and Design 
Ripon College 
Rivier College 
Roanoke College 
Robert Morris College, Illinois 
Robert Morris College, Pittsburgh, PA 
Roberts Wesleyan College 
Rochester Institute of Technology 
Rochester College 
The Rockefeller University 
Rockford College 
Rockhurst University 
Rocky Mountain College 
Roger Williams University 
Rogers State University 
Rollins College 
Roosevelt University 
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology 
Rosemont College 
Rowan University 
Rush University 
Russell Sage College 
Rust College 
Rutgers University 
Rutgers University-Camden 
Rutgers University-Newark 
Ryokan College
– S –
Sacred Heart University 
Sacred Heart University, Puerto Rico 
The Sage Colleges 
Saginaw Valley State University 
Saint Ambrose University 
Saint Andrews Presbyterian College 
Saint Anselm College 
Saint Anthony College of Nursing 
Saint Augustine’s College 
Saint Bonaventure University 
Saint Cloud State University 
Saint Edwards University 
Saint Francis College, Brooklyn Heights, New York 
Saint Francis College, Fort Wayne, Indiana 
Saint Francis College, Loretto, Pennsylvania 
St. Gregory’s University 
Saint John Fisher College 
Saint John’s College 
Saint John’s University, Collegeville Minnesota 
Saint John’s University, Jamaica New York 
Saint Joseph College 
Saint Joseph’s College 
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine 
Saint Joseph’s University 
Saint Lawrence University 
Saint Leo University 
Saint Louis University 
Saint Martin’s College 
Saint Mary College 
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College 
Saint Mary’s College 
Saint Mary’s College of California 
Saint Mary’s College of Maryland 
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota 
Saint Mary’s University of San Antonio 
Saint Meinrad’s School of Theology 
Saint Michael’s College 
Saint Norbert College 
Saint Olaf College 
Saint Paul’s College 
Saint Peter’s College 
Saint Rose College 
Saint Thomas Aquinas College 
Saint Thomas University 
Saint Vincent College 
Saint Xavier University 
Salem College 
Salem International University 
Salem State College 
Salisbury State University 
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies 
Salve Regina University 
Sam Houston State University 
Samford University 
Samuel Merritt College 
San Diego State University 
San Francisco Art Institute 
San Francisco Law School 
San Francisco State University 
San Joaquin College of Law 
San Jose Christian College 
San Jose State University 
Santa Clara University 
Sarah Lawrence College 
Saratoga University School of Law 
Sarah Lawrence College 
Savannah College of Art and Design 
Savannah State University 
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center 
Schiller International University 
School for International Training 
School of the Art Institute of Chicago 
School of Islamic and Social Sciences 
School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
School of the Visual Arts 
Schreiner College 
Scripps College 
The Scripps Research Institute 
Seattle Pacific University 
Seattle University 
Seton Hall University 
Seton Hill College 
Shasta Bible College 
Shawnee State University 
Shaw University 
Sheffield School of Interior Design 
Sheldon Jackson College 
Shenandoah University 
Shepherd College 
Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic 
Shimer College 
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 
Shorter College 
Siena College 
Siena Heights University 
Silver Lake College 
Simmons College 
Simon’s Rock College 
Simpson College, Redding California 
Simpson College, Indianola Iowa 
Skidmore College 
Slippery Rock University 
Smith Chapel Bible College 
Smith College 
Soka University of America 
Sonoma State University 
South Carolina State University 
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology 
South Dakota State University 
South Pacific University 
South Texas College of Law 
Southampton College 
Southeast College of Technology 
Southeast Missouri State University 
Southeastern College 
Southeastern Louisiana University 
Southeastern Oklahoma State University 
Southeastern University 
Southern Adventist University 
Southern Arkansas University 
Southern California University of Health Sciences 
Southern California University of Professional Studies 
Southern Connecticut State University 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale 
Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville 
Southern Illinois University Medical School at Springsfield 
Southern Methodist University 
Southern Nazarene University 
Southern New Hampshire University 
Southern Oregon State College 
Southern Polytechnic State Univerisity 
Southern Vermont College 
Southern Virginia University 
Southern Wesleyan University 
Southern University, Baton Rouge 
Southern University, New Orleans 
Southern University, Shreveport-Bossier City 
Southern Utah University 
Southwest Baptist University 
Southwest Bible College and Seminary 
Southwest Missouri State University 
Southwest State University 
Southwest Texas State University 
Southwestern Adventist University 
Southwestern Assemblies of God University 
Southwestern College 
Southwestern Oklahoma State University 
Southwestern University 
Southwestern University School of Law 
Spalding University 
Spartanburg Methodist College 
Spelman College 
Spertus College 
Spring Arbor College 
Spring Hill College 
Springfield College 
Stamford International College 
Stanford University 
State University of New York at Albany 
State University of New York at Binghamton 
State University of New York at Buffalo 
State University of New York at Oswego 
State University of New York at Stony Brook 
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Cobleskill 
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville 
State University of New York College at Brockport 
State University of New York College at Buffalo (Buffalo State College) 
State University of New York College at Cortland 
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry 
State University of New York College at Farmingdale 
State University of New York College at Fredonia 
State University of New York College at Geneseo 
State University of New York College Maritime College at Fort Schuyler 
State University of New York College at New Paltz 
State University of New York College at Old Westbury 
State University of New York College at Oneonta 
State University of New York College at Oswego 
State University of New York College at Plattsburgh 
State University of New York College at Potsdam 
State University of New York College at Purchase 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Canton 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Delhi 
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome 
State University of West Georgia 
The Stefan University 
Stephen F. Austin State University 
Stephens College 
Sterling College, Sterling Kansas 
Sterling College, Kansas 
Sterling College, Vermont 
Stetson University 
Stevens-Henager College 
Stevens Institute of Technology 
Stillman College 
Stonehill College 
Strayer University 
Suffolk University 
Sul Ross State University 
Summit University of Louisiana 
Susquehanna University 
Swarthmore College 
Sweet Briar College 
Syracuse University
– T –
Tabor College 
Talladega College 
Tarleton State University 
Taylor University 
Teachers College 
Teikyo Marycrest University 
Teikyo Post University 
Temple University 
Tennessee State University 
Tennessee Technological University 
Tennessee Temple University 
Tennessee Wesleyan College 
Texas A&M International University 
Texas A&M University 
Texas A&M University, Commerce 
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi 
Texas A&M University, Galveston 
Texas A&M University, Kingsville 
Texas A&M University, Texarkana 
Texas Christian University 
Texas Lutheran University 
Texas Southern University 
Texas Tech University 
Texas Wesleyan University 
Texas Woman’s University 
Thiel College 
Thomas Aquinas College, Santa Paula CA 
Thomas Edison State College 
Thomas College 
Thomas Cooley Law School 
Thomas More College 
Thomas Jefferson University 
Toccoa Falls College 
Tougaloo College 
Touro College 
Towson University 
The Transworld University 
Transylvania University 
Trevecca Nazarene University 
Trinity Baptist College 
Trinity Christian College 
Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut 
Trinity College of Florida 
Trinity College, Washington DC 
Trinity College of Vermont 
Trinity International University 
Trinity University 
Tri-State University 
Troy State University 
Troy State University – Dothan 
Truman State University 
Tufts University 
Tulane University 
Tusculum College 
Tuskegee University
– U –
Uniformed Services Universty of the Health Sciences 
Union College, Barbourville KY 
Union College 
Union Theological Seminary 
Union University 
The Union Institute 
United States Air Force Academy 
United States Coast Guard Academy 
United States Merchant Marine Academy 
United States Military Academy 
United States Naval Academy 
United States Open University 
United States Sports Academy 
Unity College 
University of Action Learning at Boulder 
University of Advancing Technology 
University of Akron 
University of Alabama 
University of Alabama, Birmingham 
University of Alabama, Huntsville 
University of Alaska, Anchorage 
University of Alaska, Fairbanks 
University of Alaska, Southeast 
University of Arizona 
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 
University of Arkansas at Little Rock 
University of Arkansas at Monticello 
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff 
University of the Arts 
University of Baltimore 
University of Bridgeport 
University of California, Berkeley 
University of California, Davis 
University of California, Hastings College of Law 
University of California, Irvine 
University of California, Los Angeles 
University of California, Merced 
University of California, Riverside 
University of California, San Diego 
University of California, San Francisco 
University of California, Santa Barbara 
University of California, Santa Cruz 
University of Central Arkansas 
University of Central Florida 
University of Central Oklahoma 
University of Charleston 
University of Chicago 
University of Cincinnati 
University of Colorado 
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs 
University of Colorado, Denver 
University of Connecticut 
University of Dallas 
University of Dayton 
University of Delaware 
University of Denver 
University of Detroit Mercy 
University of the District of Columbia 
University of Dubuque 
University of Evansville 
University of Findlay 
University of Florida 
University of Georgia 
University of Great Falls 
University of Guam 
University of Hartford 
University of Hawai`i 
University of Hawai`i, Hilo 
University of Hawai`i, West O`ahu 
University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine 
University of Houston 
University of Houston, Clear Lake 
University of Houston, Downtown 
University of Houston, Victoria 
University of Idaho 
University of the Incarnate Word 
University of Indianapolis 
University of Illinois at Chicago 
University of Illinois at Springfield 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
University of Iowa 
University of Judaism 
University of Kansas 
University of Kansas Medical Center 
University of Kentucky 
University of La Vernee 
University of Louisiana at Lafayette 
University of Louisiana at Monroe 
University of Louisville 
University of Maine 
University of Maine at Fort Kent 
University of Maine at Presque Isle 
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor 
University of Maryland Baltimore County 
University of Maryland at Baltimore 
University of Maryland at College Park 
University of Maryland Eastern Shore 
University of Maryland University College 
University of Massachusetts at Amherst 
University of Massachusetts at Boston 
University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth 
University of Massachusetts at Lowell 
University of Massachusetts Medical School 
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey 
University of Memphis 
University of Miami 
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 
University of Michigan-Dearborn 
University of Michigan-Flint 
University of Minnesota-Crookston 
University of Minnesota-Duluth 
University of Minnesota-Morris 
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities 
University of Mississippi 
University of Missouri-Columbia 
University of Missouri-Kansas City 
University of Missouri-Rolla 
University of Missouri-Saint Louis 
University of Montana, Missoula 
University of Montevallo 
University of Natural Medicine 
University of Nebraska, Kearney 
University of Nebraska, Lincoln 
University of Nebraska, Omaha 
University of Nevada, Las Vegas 
University of Nevada, Reno 
University of New England 
University of New Hampshire, Durham 
University of New Haven 
University of New Mexico 
University of New Orleans 
University of Newport 
University of North Alabama 
University of North Carolina at Asheville 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
University of North Carolina at Charlotte 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro 
University of North Carolina at Pembroke 
University of North Carolina at Wilmington 
University of North Dakota 
University of North Dakota–Lake Region 
University of North Florida 
University of North Texas 
University of Northern Colorado 
University of Northern Iowa 
University of Northern Washington 
University of Notre Dame 
University of Oklahoma 
University of Oregon 
University of Orlando 
University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Science 
University of the Ozarks 
University of the Pacific 
University of Pennsylvania 
University of Phoenix 
University of Pittsburgh 
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford 
University of Pittsburgh at Greenburg 
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 
University of Portland 
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez 
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras 
University of Puget Sound 
University of Redlands 
University of Rhode Island 
University of Richmond 
University of Rio Grande 
University of Rochester 
University of St. Francis 
University of St. Thomas, Houston 
University of St. Thomas, Saint Paul 
University of San Diego 
University of San Francisco 
University of Sarasota 
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma 
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia 
University of Scranton 
University of Sioux Falls 
University of the South 
University of South Alabama 
University of South Carolina 
University of South Carolina, Aiken 
University of South Carolina, Beaufort 
University of South Carolina, Spartanburg 
University of South Dakota 
University of South Florida 
University of Southern California 
University of Southern Colorado 
University of Southern Indiana 
University of Southern Maine 
University of Southern Mississippi 
University of Tampa 
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga 
University of Tennessee Health Science Center 
University of Tennessee, Knoxville 
University of Tennessee, Martin 
University of Texas at Arlington 
University of Texas at Austin 
University of Texas at Brownsville 
University of Texas at Dallas 
University of Texas at El Paso 
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston 
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 
University of Texas Health Center at Tyler 
University of Texas Medical Branch 
University of Texas-Pan American 
University of Texas of the Permian Basin 
University of Texas at San Antonio 
University of Texas at Tyler 
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center 
University of Toledo 
University of Tulsa 
University of Utah 
University of Vermont 
University of the Virgin Islands 
University of Virginia 
University of Washington 
University of West Alabama 
University of West Florida 
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay 
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire 
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse 
University of Wisconsin-Madison 
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh 
University of Wisconsin-Parkside 
University of Wisconsin-Platteville 
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point 
University of Wisconsin-Stout 
University of Wisconsin-Superior 
University of Wisconsin-River Falls 
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater 
University of Wyoming 
Upper Iowa University 
Urbana University 
Ursinus College 
Ursuline College 
Utah State University 
Utah Valley State College 
Utica College
– V –
Valdosta State University 
Valley City State University 
Valparaiso University 
Vanderbilt University 
Vanguard University 
Vassar College 
Vennard College 
Vermont Technical College 
Villa Julie College 
Villanova University 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
Virginia Intermont College 
Virginia International University 
Virginia Military Institute 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 
Virginia State University 
Virginia Union University 
Virginia University of Lynchburg 
Virginia Wesleyan College 
Viterbo College 
Voorhees College
– W –
Wabash College 
Wagner College 
Wake Forest University 
Warner Pacific College 
Wartburg College 
Walden University 
Walla Walla College 
Walsh University 
Warren Wilson College 
Washburn University 
Washington & Jefferson College 
Washington & Lee University 
Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary 
Washington College 
Washington State University 
Washington University in Saint Louis 
Wayland Baptist University 
Wayne State College 
Wayne State University 
Waynesburg College 
Webb Institute 
Weber State University 
Webster University 
Webster University North Florida 
Wellesley College 
Wells College 
Wentworth Institute of Technology 
Wesley College 
Wesleyan College 
Wesleyan University 
West Coast University 
West Chester University of Pennsylvania 
West Liberty State College 
West Texas A&M University 
West Virginia State College 
West Virginia University 
West Virginia University Parkersburg 
West Virginia Wesleyan College 
Western Baptist College 
Western Carolina University 
Western Connecticut State University 
Western Governors University 
Western Illinois University 
Western International University 
Western Kentucky University 
Western Maryland College 
Western Michigan University 
Western Montana College 
Western New England College 
Western New Mexico University 
Western Oregon University 
Western State College 
Western State University College of Law 
Western States Chiropractic College 
Western University of Health Sciences 
Western Washington University 
Westfield State College 
Westminster College, Fulton Missouri 
Westminster College, New Wilmington Pennsylvania 
Westminster College, Salt Lake City 
Westminster Theological Seminary 
Westminster Theological Seminary in California 
Westmont College 
Westwood College of Technology 
Wheaton College, Wheaton Illinois 
Wheaton College, Massachusetts 
Wheeling Jesuit University 
Wheelock College 
Whitman College 
Whittier College 
Whitworth College 
Wichita State University 
Widener University 
Wilberforce University 
Wilkes University 
Willamette University 
William Howard Taft University 
William Carey International University 
William Jewell College 
William Mitchell College of Law 
William Paterson University 
William Penn College 
William Woods University 
Williams Baptist College 
Williams College 
Wilmington College, New Castle Delaware 
Wilmington College, Wilmington Ohio 
Wilson College 
Wingate University 
Winston-Salem State University 
Winona State University 
Winthrop University 
Wisconsin Lutheran College 
Wittenberg University 
Wofford College 
Woodbury University 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
Worcester State College 
Wright Institute 
Wright State University
– X –
Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 
Xavier University of Louisiana
– Y –
Yale University 
Yeshiva University 
York College, York Nebraska 
York College of Pennsylvania 
Youngstown State University
– Z –
Zion Bible Institute
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

– A –
Abilene Christian University
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College
Academy of Art University
Adams State College
Adelphi University
Adrian College
Agnes Scott College
Air Force Institute of Technology
Air University
Alabama A&M University
Alabama State University
Alaska Bible College
Alaska Pacific University
Albany State University
Albertson College of Idaho
Albertus Magnus College
Albion College
Albright College
Alcorn State University
Alderson-Broaddus College
Alexandria University
Alfred State College, State University of New York College of Technology
Alfred University
Allegheny College
Allen College
Allen University
Allentown College
Alliant International University
Alma College
Alvernia College
Alverno College
Amberton University
American Bible College and Seminary
American Coastline University
The American College
American Global University
American Graduate School of International Management
American Institute for Computer Sciences
American InterContinental University
American International College
American Military University
American Public University
American Schools of Professional Psychology
American University
American University of Hawaii
Amherst College
Anderson College
Anderson University
Andrew Jackson University
Andrews University
Angelo State University
Anna Maria College
Antioch College
Antioch New England Graduate School
Antioch University Los Angeles
Antioch University Santa Barbara
Antioch University Seattle
Antioch University Yellow Springs OH
Apache University
Appalachian School of Law
Appalachian State University
Aquinas College
Arcadia University
Arizona International College
Arizona State University
Arizona State University West
Arkansas State University
Arkansas Tech University
Arlington Baptist College
Armstrong State University
Art Center College of Design
The Art Institute of Phoenix
The Art Institute of Southern California
The Art Institute of Washington
Asbury College
Ashland University
Assumption College
Athena University
Athens State College
Atlantic Union College
Auburn University
Auburn University, Montgomery
Audrey Cohen College
Augsburg College
Augusta State University
Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Augustana College, Sioux Falls South Dakota
Aurora University
Austin College
Austin Peay State University
Averett College
Avila College
Azusa Pacific University
– B –
Babson College
Baker College
Baker University
Baldwin-Wallace College
Ball State University
Baltimore Hebrew University
Bank Street College of Education
Baptist Bible College and Seminary
The Baptist College of Florida
Bard College
Barclay College
Barnard College
Barrington University
Barry University
Barton College
Bastyr University
Bates College
Bay Path College
Baylor College of Dentistry
Baylor College of Medicine
Baylor University
Belhaven College
Bellarmine College
Bellevue University
Belmont Abbey College
Belmont University
Beloit College
Bemidji State Univeristy
Benedict College
Benedictine College
Benedictine University
Bennett College
Bennington College
Bentley College
Berea College
Berkeley College
Berklee College of Music
Berry College
Bethany Bible College
Bethany College, West Virginia
Bethany College, Lindsborg, KS
Bethany College, Scotts Valley, CA
Bethany Lutheran College
Bethel College and Seminary, Saint Paul Minnesota
Bethel College, McKenzie, Tennessee
Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana
Bethel College, Newton, Kansas
Bethune-Cookman College
Bienville University
Biola University
Birmingham-Southern College
Black Hills State University
Blackburn College
Bloomfield College
Bloomsburg University
Bluefield College
Bluefield State College
Bluffton College
Bob Jones University
Boise State University
The Boston Architectural Center
Boston College
Boston Conservatory
Boston University
Bowdoin College
Bowie State University
Bowling Green State University
Bradford College
Bradley University
Brandeis University
Brenau University
Brewton-Parker College
Briar Cliff University
Bridgewater College
Bridgewater State College
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University Hawaii
Brigham Young University Idaho
Brooklyn College
Brooklyn Law School
Brown University
Bryant College
Bryn Mawr College
Bucknell University
Buena Vista University
Buffalo State
Butler University
– C –
C. R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Caldwell College
California Baptist University
California Coast University
California College of Arts and Crafts
California College for Health Sciences
California College of Podiatric Medicine
California Institute of the Arts
California Institute for Human Science
California Institute of Integral Studies
California Institute of Technology
California Lutheran University
The California Maritime Academy
California National University for Advanced Studies
California Pacific University
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State University, Bakersfield
California State University, Channel Islands
California State University, Chico
California State University, Dominguez Hills
California State University, Fresno
California State University, Fullerton
California State University, Hayward
California State University, Long Beach
California State University, Los Angeles
California State University, Monterey
California State University, Northridge
California State University, Sacramento
California State University, San Bernardino
California State University, San Marcos
California State University, Stanislaus
California University of Pennsylvania
Calumet College of St. Joseph
Calvin College
Cambridge College
Cameron University
Campbell University
Campbellsville University
Canisius College
Canyon College
Capella University
Capital University
Cardinal Stritch University
Carleton College
Carlow College
Carnegie Institution of Washington
Carnegie Mellon University
Carroll College, Helena, MT
Carroll College, Waukesha, WI
Carson-Newman College
Carthage College
Case Western Reserve University
Castleton State College
Catawba College
The Catholic University of America
Cazenovia College
Cedar Crest College
Cedarville University
Centenary College of Louisiana
Centenary College of New Jersey
Center for Creative Studies College of Art and Design
Central College
Central Connecticut State University
Central Methodist College
Central Michigan University
Central Missouri State University
Central State University
Central Washington University
Centre College, Danville Kentucky
Century University
Chadron State College
Chadwick University
Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii
Champlain College
Chapman University
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science
Charleston Southern University
Charter Oak State College
Chatham College
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania
Chicago-Kent College of Law
Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Chicago State University
Chowan College
Christendom College
Christian Bible College and Seminary
Christian Brothers University
Christopher Newport University
Circleville Bible College
The Citadel
City Colleges of Chicago
City University, Bellevue Washington
City University of Los Angeles
City University of New York
Claflin College
Claremont Graduate University
Claremont McKenna College
Clarion University
Clark Atlanta University
Clark College
Clark University
Clarke College
Clarkson University
Clayton College and State University
Clayton College of Natural Health
Clemson University
Clear Creek Baptist Bible College
Cleary College
Cleveland Chiropractic College
Cleveland Institute of Art
Cleveland Institute of Music
Cleveland State University
Clinch Valley College
Coastal Carolina University
Coe College
Cogswell Polytechnical College
Coker College
Colby College
Colby-Sawyer College
Colgate University
Coleman College
College of Aeronautics
College of the Atlantic
College of Charleston
College of Eastern Utah
College of the Holy Cross
The College of Insurance
College for Lifelong Learning
The College of Metaphysical Studies
College Misericordia
College of Mount Saint Joseph
The College of New Jersey
College of New Rochelle
College of Notre Dame of Maryland
College of the Ozarks
College of Saint Benedict
College of Saint Catherine
College of Saint Elizabeth
College of Saint Mary
College of Saint Scholastica
The College of Saint Thomas More
The College of Saint Rose
The College of Santa Fe
College of the Southwest
College of William and Mary
The College of Wooster
Colorado Christian University
Colorado College
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado State University
Colorado Technical University
Columbia College
Columbia College of Missouri
Columbia International University
Columbia Southern University
Columbia Union College
Columbia University
Columbus State University
Concord College
Concordia College, Ann Arbor Michigan
Concordia College, Austin Texas
Concordia College, Bronxville, New York
Concordia College, Moorhead Minnesota
Concordia College, Saint Paul Minnesota
Concordia College, Selma Alabama
Concordia College, Seward Nebraska
Concordia University, Irvine California
Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin
Concordia University, Portland Oregon
Concordia University, River Forest Illinois
Connecticut College
Converse College
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art
Coppin State College
Cornell College, Iowa
Corcoran College of Art + Design
Cornell University
Cornerstone University
Cornish College of the Arts
Cottey College
Covenant College
Creighton University
Crichton College
Crown College
Culver-Stockton College
Cumberland College
Cumberland University
Curry College
Cypress College
– D –
Daemen College
Dakota State University
Dakota Wesleyan University
Dallas Baptist University
Dallas Theological Seminary
Dana College
Daniel Webster College
Dartmouth College
Davenport College
Davidson College
Davis and Elkins College
Dawson College
Dean College
Deep Springs College
Defiance College
Delaware State University
Delaware Valley College
Delta College
Delta State University
Denison University
Denver Seminary
DePaul University
DePauw University
DeSales University
DeVry University
DeVry University, Columbus
Diablo Valley College
Dickinson College
Dickinson State University
Dillard University
Dixie State College
Doane College
Dominican College
Dominican University
Dominican University of California
Dordt College
Dowling College
Drake University
Drew University
Drexel University
Drury University
Duke University
Duquesne University
D’Youville College
– E –
Earlham College
East Carolina University
East Central University, Ada Oklahoma
East Stroudsburg State University
East Tennessee State University
East Texas Baptist University
East-West University
Eastern College
Eastern Connecticut State University
Eastern Illinois University
Eastern Kentucky University
Eastern Mennonite University
Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Nazarene College
Eastern New Mexico University
Eastern Oregon University
Eastern Washington University
Eckerd College
Edgewood College
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Edward Waters College
Elizabeth City State University
Elizabethtown College
Elmhurst College
Elmira College
Elms College
Elon University
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Emerson College
Emmanuel College
Emmaus Bible College
Emory University
Emory & Henry College
Empire State College
Emporia State University
Endicott College
Erskine College
Eureka College
Evangel University
Everglades College
Evergreen State College
Excelsior College
– F –
Fairfield University
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Fairmont State College
Faith Baptist Bible College and Theological Seminary
Faulkner University
Fayetteville State University
Felician College
Ferris State University
Ferrum College
Fielding Graduate Institute
Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School
Fisk University
Fitchburg State College
Flagler College
Florida A & M University
Florida Atlantic University
Florida Christian College
Florida Gulf Coast University
Florida Institute of Technology
Florida International University
Florida Memorial College
Florida Metropolitan University
Florida Southern College
Florida State University
Fontbonne College
Fordham University
Forest Institute of Professional Psychology
Fort Hays State University
Fort Lewis College
Fort Valley State University
Framingham State College
Francis Marion University
Franciscan University of Steubenville
Franklin and Marshall College
Franklin College
Franklin Pierce College
Franklin Pierce Law Center
Franklin University
Freed-Hardeman University
Freewill Baptist Bible College
Fresno Pacific University
Friends University
Frostburg State University
Fuller Theological Seminary
Fullerton College
Furman University
– G –
Gallaudet University
Gannon University
Gardner-Webb University
Geneva College
George Fox University
George Mason University
George Washington University
Georgetown College
Georgetown University
Georgian Court College
Georgia College and State University
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Perimeter College
Georgia Southern University
Georgia Southwestern State University
Georgia State University
Georgian Court College
Gettysburg College
Glenville State College
Globe Institute of Technology
Goddard College
Golden Gate University
Golden State Baptist College
Goldey-Beacom College
Gonzaga University
Gooding Institute of Nurse Anesthesia
Gordon College
Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary
Goshen College
Goucher College
Governors State University
Grace College
Grace University
Graceland University
The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Grambling State University
Grand Canyon University
Grand Valley State University
Grand View College
Grantham University
Green Mountain College
Greenleaf University
Greensboro College
Greenville College
Greenwich University
Grinnell College
Grove City College
Guilford College
Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota
Gwynedd-Mercy College
– H –
Hamilton College
Hamilton University
Hamline University
Hampden-Sydney College
Hampshire College
Hampton University
Hannibal-LaGrange College
Hanover College
Hardin-Simmons University
Harding University
Harris-Stowe State College
Hartwick College
Harvard University
Harvey Mudd College
Hastings College
Haverford College
Hawaii Pacific University
Hebrew College
Heidelberg College
Henderson State Univerisity
Hendrix College
Henry Cogswell College
Heritage College
Hesser College
Hesston College
High Point University
Hilbert College
Hillsdale College
Hillsdale Freewill Baptist College
Hiram College
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Hofstra University
Hollins University
Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Indiana
Holy Family College
Hood College
Hope College
Houghton College
Houston Baptist University
Howard Payne University
Howard University
Humboldt State University
Hunter College
Huntingdon College
Huntington College
Huron University
Husson College
Huston-Tillotson College
– I –
Idaho State University
Illinois College
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois State University
Illinois Wesleyan University
Immaculata College
Indiana Institute Technologyy
Indiana State University
Indiana Wesleyan University
Indiana University
Indiana University Northwest
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Indiana University at South Bend
Indiana University Southeast
Indiana University – Purdue University, Columbus
Indiana University – Purdue University, Fort Wayne
Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis
Institute for Christian Works
Institute of Computer Technology
Institute of Paper Science and Technology
Institute for Transpersonal Psychology
Inter American University of Puerto Rico
International College
International Fine Arts College
International Institue of the Americas
International Reform University
Iona College
Iowa State University
Iowa Wesleyan College
Ithaca College
– J –
Jackson State University
Jacksonville State University
Jacksonville University
James Madison University
Jamestown College
Jarvis Christian College
Jewish Theological Seminary
John Brown University
John Carroll University
John F. Kennedy University
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
The Johns Hopkins University
Johnson Bible College
Johnson and Wales University
Johnson C. Smith University
Joint Military Intelligence College
Jones College
Jones International University
Judson College, Marion AL
Judson College, Elgin IL
The Julliard School
Juniata College
– K –
Kalamazoo College
Kansas City Art Institute
Kansas Newman College
Kansas State University
Kansas Wesleyan University
Kean University
Keck Graduate Institute
Keene State College
Keiser College
Kennedy-Western University
Kennesaw State University
Kent State University
Kentucky Christian College
Kentucky State University
Kentucky Wesleyan College
Kenyon College
Kettering University
Keuka College
King College
King’s College, Wilkes-Barre, PA
The King’s College, New York City, NY
Knox College
Knox Theological Seminary
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
– L –
La Roche College
La Salle University
La Sierra University
Lafayette College
LaGrange College
Lake Erie College
Lake Forest College
Lake Superior State University
Lakeland College
Lamar University
Lambuth University
Lancaster Bible College
Lancaster Theological Seminary
Lander University
Landmark College
Langston University
Lane College
Lasell College
Lawrence Technological University
Lawrence University
Le Moyne College
Lebanon Valley College
Lee College
Lee University
Lees-McRae College
Lehigh Univervsity
LeMoyne-Owen College
Lenoir-Rhyne College
Lenox Institute of Water Technology
Lesley University
LeTourneau University
Lewis & Clark College
Lewis-Clark State College
Lewis University
Liberty University
Life University
Limestone College
Lincoln Christian College and Seminary
Lincoln College
Lincoln Memorial University
Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri
Lincoln University, San Francisco California
Lincoln University of Pennsylvania
Lindenwood College
Lindsey Wilson College
Linfield College
Lipscomb University
Lock Haven University
Logan College of Chiropractic
Loma Linda University
Long Island University
Longwood College
Loras College
Louisburg College
Louisiana Baptist Universty
Louisiana College
Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
Louisiana State University at Shreveport
Louisiana Tech University
Loyola College, Baltimore
Loyola Marymount University
Loyola University, Chicago
Loyola University, New Orleans
Lubbock Christian University
Luther College
Luther Seminary
Lutheran Bible Institute
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg
Lycoming College
Lyme Academy of Fine Arts
Lynchburg College
Lyndon State College
Lynn University
Lyon College
– M –
Macalester College
MacMurray College
Madonna University
Maharishi University of Management
Maine College of Art
Maine Maritime Academy
Malone College
Manchester College
Manhattan College
Manhattanville College
Mansfield University
Maranatha Baptist Bible College
Marian College
Marietta College
Marlboro College
Marist College
Marquette University
Mars Hill College
Marshall University
Mary Baldwin College
Mary Washington College
Maryland Institute, College of Art
Marylhurst University
Marymount College
Marymount Manhattan College
Marymount University
Maryville College
Maryville University of Saint Louis
Marywood University
Massachusetts College of Art
Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Maritime Academy
Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology
The Master’s College
The Mayo Foundation
Mayville State University
The McGregor School of Antioch University
McKendree College
McMurry University
McNeese State University
MCP Hahnemann University
McPherson College
Medaille College
Medical College of Georgia
Medical College of Ohio
Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann University
Medical College of Wisconsin
Medical University of South Carolina
Meharry Medical College
Menlo College
Mercer University
Mercy College
Mercy College of Health Sciences
Mercyhurst College
Meredith College
Merrimack College
Mesa State College
Messiah College
Methodist College
Methodist Theological School in Ohio
Metropolitan College
Metropolitan State College of Denver
Metropolitan State University
Miami Christian University
Miami University of Ohio
Michigan State University
Michigan Technological University
Mid-America Nazarene University
Middle Georgia College
Middle Tennessee State University
Middlebury College
Midwestern Baptist College
Midwestern State University
Miles College
Millersville University
Milligan College
Millikin University
Mills College
Millsaps College
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Minneapolis College of Art and Design
Minnesota State University Mankato
Minnesota State University Moorhead
Minot State University
Minot State University–Bottineau
Mississippi College
Mississippi State University
Mississippi University for Women
Mississippi Valley State University
Missouri Baptist College
Missouri Southern State College
Missouri Tech
Missouri Valley College
Missouri Western State College
Mitchell College
Molloy College
Monmouth College, Monmouth Illinois
Monmouth University, West Long Branch New Jersey
Monroe College
Montana State University-Billings
Montana State University-Bozeman
Montana State University College of Technology, Great Falls
Montana State University-Northern Havre
Montana Tech
Montclair State University
Monterey College of Law
Monterey Institute of International Studies
Montreat College
Moravian College
Morehead State University
Morehouse College
Morehouse School of Medicine
Morgan State University
Morningside College
Morris Brown College
Morris College
Mount Aloysius College
Mount Holyoke College
Mount Ida College
Mount Marty College
Mount Mary College
Mount Mercy College
Mount Olive College
Mount St. Clare College
Mount St. Mary’s College and Seminary, Emmitsburg Maryland
Mount St. Mary’s College, Los Angeles California
Mount Senario College
Mt. Sierra College
Mount Union College
Mount Vernon Nazarene College
Mountain State University
Muhlenberg College
Murray State University
Muskingum College
– N –
Naropa University
National American University
National Defense University
The National Graduate School
National-Louis University
National Technological University
National University
The Naval Postgraduate School
Nazarene Bible College
Nazareth College
Nebraska Methodist College
Nebraska Wesleyan University
Neumann College
New Brunswick Theological Seminary
New College of Florida
New England College of Optometry
New England Conservatory of Music
New England Institute of Technology
New England School of Communications
New Jersey City University
New Jersey Institute of Technology
New Mexico Highlands University
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
New Mexico State University
New School University
New World School of the Arts
New York Academy of Art
New York Institute of Technology
New York Law School
New York University
Newberry College
Newport University
Niagara University
Nicholls State University
Nichols College
Norfolk State University
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
North Carolina Central University
North Carolina School of the Arts
North Carolina State University
North Carolina Wesleyan College
North Central College
North Central University
North Dakota State University–Fargo
North Georgia College and State University, the Military College of Georgia
North Greenville College
North Park University
Northeastern Illinois University
Northeastern University
Northeastern State University
Northern Arizona University
Northern Illinois University
Northern Kentucky University
Northern Michigan University
Northern State University
Northland College
Northwest Christian College
Northwest College
Northwest College of Art
Northwest Missouri State University
Northwest Nazarene University
Northwestern Oklahoma State University
Northwestern State University, Louisiana
Northwestern College, Iowa
Northwestern College, Saint Paul, MN
Northwestern Michigan College
Northwestern University
Northwood University
Norwich University
Notre Dame College of Ohio
Notre Dame de Namur University
Nova Southeastern University
Nyack College
– O –
Oakland University
Oakwood College
Oberlin College
Occidental College
Oglethorpe University
Ohio Dominican College
Ohio Northern University
The Ohio State University
Ohio University
Ohio Valley College
Ohio Wesleyan University
Oklahoma Baptist University
Oklahoma Christian University
Oklahoma City University
Oklahoma Panhandle State University
Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University Tulsa
Oklahoma Wesleyan University
Old Dominion University
Olin College of Engineering
Olivet College
Olivet Nazarene University
The Open University
Oral Roberts University
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology
Oregon Health Sciences University
Oregon Institute of Technology
Oregon State University
Otterbein College
Ottawa University
Ouachita Baptist University
Our Lady of the Lake University
Our Lady of Holy Cross College
– P –
Pace University
Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
Pacific Lutheran University
Pacific Northwest College of Art
Pacific States University
Pacific Union College
Pacific University
Paine College
Palm Beach Atlantic College
Palmer College of Chiropractic
Park University
Parsons School of Design
Patten College
Patrick Henry College
Paul Quinn College
Paul Smith’s College
Peace College
Pennsylvania College of Technology
The Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University at Altoona
Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley
Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg
Pennsylvania State University, Worthington Scranton
Pensacola Christian College
Pepperdine University
Peru State College
Pfeiffer University
Pickering University
Piedmont College
Pine Manor College
Pittsburg State University
Philadelphia Biblical University
Philadelphia University
Philander Smith College
Phillips University
Pitzer College
Plymouth State University, Plymouth New Hampshire
Point Loma Nazarene College
Point Park College
Polytechnic University of New York
Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
Pomona College
Portland State University
Potomac College
Prairie View A & M University
Pratt Institute
Presbyterian College
Prescott College
Preston University
Princeton University
Principia College
Providence College
Purdue University
– Q –
Queens College
Quincy University
Quinnipiac College
– R –
Radford University
Ramapo College of New Jersey
Randolph-Macon College
Randolph-Macon Woman’s College
Reed College
Regent University
Regis College
Regis University
Reinhardt College
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rhode Island College
Rhode Island School of Design
Rhodes College
Rice University
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
Rider University
Ringling School of Art and Design
Ripon College
Rivier College
Roanoke College
Robert Morris College, Illinois
Robert Morris College, Pittsburgh, PA
Roberts Wesleyan College
Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester College
The Rockefeller University
Rockford College
Rockhurst University
Rocky Mountain College
Roger Williams University
Rogers State University
Rollins College
Roosevelt University
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
Rosemont College
Rowan University
Rush University
Russell Sage College
Rust College
Rutgers University
Rutgers University-Camden
Rutgers University-Newark
Ryokan College
– S –
Sacred Heart University
Sacred Heart University, Puerto Rico
The Sage Colleges
Saginaw Valley State University
Saint Ambrose University
Saint Andrews Presbyterian College
Saint Anselm College
Saint Anthony College of Nursing
Saint Augustine’s College
Saint Bonaventure University
Saint Cloud State University
Saint Edwards University
Saint Francis College, Brooklyn Heights, New York
Saint Francis College, Fort Wayne, Indiana
Saint Francis College, Loretto, Pennsylvania
St. Gregory’s University
Saint John Fisher College
Saint John’s College
Saint John’s University, Collegeville Minnesota
Saint John’s University, Jamaica New York
Saint Joseph College
Saint Joseph’s College
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
Saint Joseph’s University
Saint Lawrence University
Saint Leo University
Saint Louis University
Saint Martin’s College
Saint Mary College
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College
Saint Mary’s College
Saint Mary’s College of California
Saint Mary’s College of Maryland
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota
Saint Mary’s University of San Antonio
Saint Meinrad’s School of Theology
Saint Michael’s College
Saint Norbert College
Saint Olaf College
Saint Paul’s College
Saint Peter’s College
Saint Rose College
Saint Thomas Aquinas College
Saint Thomas University
Saint Vincent College
Saint Xavier University
Salem College
Salem International University
Salem State College
Salisbury State University
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Salve Regina University
Sam Houston State University
Samford University
Samuel Merritt College
San Diego State University
San Francisco Art Institute
San Francisco Law School
San Francisco State University
San Joaquin College of Law
San Jose Christian College
San Jose State University
Santa Clara University
Sarah Lawrence College
Saratoga University School of Law
Sarah Lawrence College
Savannah College of Art and Design
Savannah State University
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center
Schiller International University
School for International Training
School of the Art Institute of Chicago
School of Islamic and Social Sciences
School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
School of the Visual Arts
Schreiner College
Scripps College
The Scripps Research Institute
Seattle Pacific University
Seattle University
Seton Hall University
Seton Hill College
Shasta Bible College
Shawnee State University
Shaw University
Sheffield School of Interior Design
Sheldon Jackson College
Shenandoah University
Shepherd College
Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic
Shimer College
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Shorter College
Siena College
Siena Heights University
Silver Lake College
Simmons College
Simon’s Rock College
Simpson College, Redding California
Simpson College, Indianola Iowa
Skidmore College
Slippery Rock University
Smith Chapel Bible College
Smith College
Soka University of America
Sonoma State University
South Carolina State University
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
South Dakota State University
South Pacific University
South Texas College of Law
Southampton College
Southeast College of Technology
Southeast Missouri State University
Southeastern College
Southeastern Louisiana University
Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Southeastern University
Southern Adventist University
Southern Arkansas University
Southern California University of Health Sciences
Southern California University of Professional Studies
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville
Southern Illinois University Medical School at Springsfield
Southern Methodist University
Southern Nazarene University
Southern New Hampshire University
Southern Oregon State College
Southern Polytechnic State Univerisity
Southern Vermont College
Southern Virginia University
Southern Wesleyan University
Southern University, Baton Rouge
Southern University, New Orleans
Southern University, Shreveport-Bossier City
Southern Utah University
Southwest Baptist University
Southwest Bible College and Seminary
Southwest Missouri State University
Southwest State University
Southwest Texas State University
Southwestern Adventist University
Southwestern Assemblies of God University
Southwestern College
Southwestern Oklahoma State University
Southwestern University
Southwestern University School of Law
Spalding University
Spartanburg Methodist College
Spelman College
Spertus College
Spring Arbor College
Spring Hill College
Springfield College
Stamford International College
Stanford University
State University of New York at Albany
State University of New York at Binghamton
State University of New York at Buffalo
State University of New York at Oswego
State University of New York at Stony Brook
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Cobleskill
State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology, Morrisville
State University of New York College at Brockport
State University of New York College at Buffalo (Buffalo State College)
State University of New York College at Cortland
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
State University of New York College at Farmingdale
State University of New York College at Fredonia
State University of New York College at Geneseo
State University of New York College Maritime College at Fort Schuyler
State University of New York College at New Paltz
State University of New York College at Old Westbury
State University of New York College at Oneonta
State University of New York College at Oswego
State University of New York College at Plattsburgh
State University of New York College at Potsdam
State University of New York College at Purchase
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Canton
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Delhi
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome
State University of West Georgia
The Stefan University
Stephen F. Austin State University
Stephens College
Sterling College, Sterling Kansas
Sterling College, Kansas
Sterling College, Vermont
Stetson University
Stevens-Henager College
Stevens Institute of Technology
Stillman College
Stonehill College
Strayer University
Suffolk University
Sul Ross State University
Summit University of Louisiana
Susquehanna University
Swarthmore College
Sweet Briar College
Syracuse University
– T –
Tabor College
Talladega College
Tarleton State University
Taylor University
Teachers College
Teikyo Marycrest University
Teikyo Post University
Temple University
Tennessee State University
Tennessee Technological University
Tennessee Temple University
Tennessee Wesleyan College
Texas A&M International University
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University, Commerce
Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
Texas A&M University, Galveston
Texas A&M University, Kingsville
Texas A&M University, Texarkana
Texas Christian University
Texas Lutheran University
Texas Southern University
Texas Tech University
Texas Wesleyan University
Texas Woman’s University
Thiel College
Thomas Aquinas College, Santa Paula CA
Thomas Edison State College
Thomas College
Thomas Cooley Law School
Thomas More College
Thomas Jefferson University
Toccoa Falls College
Tougaloo College
Touro College
Towson University
The Transworld University
Transylvania University
Trevecca Nazarene University
Trinity Baptist College
Trinity Christian College
Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut
Trinity College of Florida
Trinity College, Washington DC
Trinity College of Vermont
Trinity International University
Trinity University
Tri-State University
Troy State University
Troy State University – Dothan
Truman State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
Tusculum College
Tuskegee University
– U –
Uniformed Services Universty of the Health Sciences
Union College, Barbourville KY
Union College
Union Theological Seminary
Union University
The Union Institute
United States Air Force Academy
United States Coast Guard Academy
United States Merchant Marine Academy
United States Military Academy
United States Naval Academy
United States Open University
United States Sports Academy
Unity College
University of Action Learning at Boulder
University of Advancing Technology
University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alabama, Birmingham
University of Alabama, Huntsville
University of Alaska, Anchorage
University of Alaska, Fairbanks
University of Alaska, Southeast
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
University of Arkansas at Monticello
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
University of the Arts
University of Baltimore
University of Bridgeport
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Davis
University of California, Hastings College of Law
University of California, Irvine
University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Merced
University of California, Riverside
University of California, San Diego
University of California, San Francisco
University of California, Santa Barbara
University of California, Santa Cruz
University of Central Arkansas
University of Central Florida
University of Central Oklahoma
University of Charleston
University of Chicago
University of Cincinnati
University of Colorado
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
University of Colorado, Denver
University of Connecticut
University of Dallas
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
University of Denver
University of Detroit Mercy
University of the District of Columbia
University of Dubuque
University of Evansville
University of Findlay
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Great Falls
University of Guam
University of Hartford
University of Hawai`i
University of Hawai`i, Hilo
University of Hawai`i, West O`ahu
University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine
University of Houston
University of Houston, Clear Lake
University of Houston, Downtown
University of Houston, Victoria
University of Idaho
University of the Incarnate Word
University of Indianapolis
University of Illinois at Chicago
University of Illinois at Springfield
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Iowa
University of Judaism
University of Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center
University of Kentucky
University of La Vernee
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
University of Louisiana at Monroe
University of Louisville
University of Maine
University of Maine at Fort Kent
University of Maine at Presque Isle
University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
University of Maryland Baltimore County
University of Maryland at Baltimore
University of Maryland at College Park
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
University of Maryland University College
University of Massachusetts at Amherst
University of Massachusetts at Boston
University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Massachusetts Medical School
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
University of Memphis
University of Miami
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
University of Michigan-Dearborn
University of Michigan-Flint
University of Minnesota-Crookston
University of Minnesota-Duluth
University of Minnesota-Morris
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
University of Mississippi
University of Missouri-Columbia
University of Missouri-Kansas City
University of Missouri-Rolla
University of Missouri-Saint Louis
University of Montana, Missoula
University of Montevallo
University of Natural Medicine
University of Nebraska, Kearney
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Nebraska, Omaha
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
University of Nevada, Reno
University of New England
University of New Hampshire, Durham
University of New Haven
University of New Mexico
University of New Orleans
University of Newport
University of North Alabama
University of North Carolina at Asheville
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
University of North Carolina at Pembroke
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
University of North Dakota
University of North Dakota–Lake Region
University of North Florida
University of North Texas
University of Northern Colorado
University of Northern Iowa
University of Northern Washington
University of Notre Dame
University of Oklahoma
University of Oregon
University of Orlando
University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Science
University of the Ozarks
University of the Pacific
University of Pennsylvania
University of Phoenix
University of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
University of Pittsburgh at Greenburg
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
University of Portland
University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras
University of Puget Sound
University of Redlands
University of Rhode Island
University of Richmond
University of Rio Grande
University of Rochester
University of St. Francis
University of St. Thomas, Houston
University of St. Thomas, Saint Paul
University of San Diego
University of San Francisco
University of Sarasota
University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
University of Scranton
University of Sioux Falls
University of the South
University of South Alabama
University of South Carolina
University of South Carolina, Aiken
University of South Carolina, Beaufort
University of South Carolina, Spartanburg
University of South Dakota
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
University of Southern Colorado
University of Southern Indiana
University of Southern Maine
University of Southern Mississippi
University of Tampa
University of Tennessee, Chattanooga
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
University of Tennessee, Martin
University of Texas at Arlington
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Brownsville
University of Texas at Dallas
University of Texas at El Paso
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
University of Texas Health Center at Tyler
University of Texas Medical Branch
University of Texas-Pan American
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
University of Texas at San Antonio
University of Texas at Tyler
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
University of Toledo
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
University of Vermont
University of the Virgin Islands
University of Virginia
University of Washington
University of West Alabama
University of West Florida
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
University of Wisconsin-Madison
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
University of Wisconsin-Parkside
University of Wisconsin-Platteville
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
University of Wisconsin-Stout
University of Wisconsin-Superior
University of Wisconsin-River Falls
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
University of Wyoming
Upper Iowa University
Urbana University
Ursinus College
Ursuline College
Utah State University
Utah Valley State College
Utica College
– V –
Valdosta State University
Valley City State University
Valparaiso University
Vanderbilt University
Vanguard University
Vassar College
Vennard College
Vermont Technical College
Villa Julie College
Villanova University
Virginia Commonwealth University
Virginia Intermont College
Virginia International University
Virginia Military Institute
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Virginia State University
Virginia Union University
Virginia University of Lynchburg
Virginia Wesleyan College
Viterbo College
Voorhees College
– W –
Wabash College
Wagner College
Wake Forest University
Warner Pacific College
Wartburg College
Walden University
Walla Walla College
Walsh University
Warren Wilson College
Washburn University
Washington & Jefferson College
Washington & Lee University
Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary
Washington College
Washington State University
Washington University in Saint Louis
Wayland Baptist University
Wayne State College
Wayne State University
Waynesburg College
Webb Institute
Weber State University
Webster University
Webster University North Florida
Wellesley College
Wells College
Wentworth Institute of Technology
Wesley College
Wesleyan College
Wesleyan University
West Coast University
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
West Liberty State College
West Texas A&M University
West Virginia State College
West Virginia University
West Virginia University Parkersburg
West Virginia Wesleyan College
Western Baptist College
Western Carolina University
Western Connecticut State University
Western Governors University
Western Illinois University
Western International University
Western Kentucky University
Western Maryland College
Western Michigan University
Western Montana College
Western New England College
Western New Mexico University
Western Oregon University
Western State College
Western State University College of Law
Western States Chiropractic College
Western University of Health Sciences
Western Washington University
Westfield State College
Westminster College, Fulton Missouri
Westminster College, New Wilmington Pennsylvania
Westminster College, Salt Lake City
Westminster Theological Seminary
Westminster Theological Seminary in California
Westmont College
Westwood College of Technology
Wheaton College, Wheaton Illinois
Wheaton College, Massachusetts
Wheeling Jesuit University
Wheelock College
Whitman College
Whittier College
Whitworth College
Wichita State University
Widener University
Wilberforce University
Wilkes University
Willamette University
William Howard Taft University
William Carey International University
William Jewell College
William Mitchell College of Law
William Paterson University
William Penn College
William Woods University
Williams Baptist College
Williams College
Wilmington College, New Castle Delaware
Wilmington College, Wilmington Ohio
Wilson College
Wingate University
Winston-Salem State University
Winona State University
Winthrop University
Wisconsin Lutheran College
Wittenberg University
Wofford College
Woodbury University
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester State College
Wright Institute
Wright State University
– X –
Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
Xavier University of Louisiana
– Y –
Yale University
Yeshiva University
York College, York Nebraska
York College of Pennsylvania
Youngstown State University
– Z –

‘Z’ HAS NO QUALIFIED SCHOOLS

Trump signs executive order aimed at reducing veteran suicides

Trump signs executive order aimed at reducing veteran suicides
© Getty Images

President Trump signed an executive order Tuesday aimed at helping veterans get access to mental health care.

The order instructs the departments of Defense, Homeland Security and Veterans Affairs to develop a plan within 60 days to provide “seamless access to mental health treatment and suicide prevention resources” for uniformed service members in the year following military service.

“We want them to get the highest care and the care they so richly deserve,” Trump said at the signing ceremony Tuesday afternoon.

Within 180 days, the departments must update Trump on the implementation of the plan and outline further reforms to increase access to mental health services.

Administration officials said the suicide rate among veterans in the first year following service is twice the average among veterans overall. About 20 veterans die by suicide per day in the U.S., the government estimates.

“That is just an unacceptable number, and we are focused on doing everything we can to prevent these veterans’ suicides,” said Veterans Affairs Secretary David Shulkin.

“We will be covering all separating military members who are transitioning into civilian life. 100 percent will have a mental health benefit for 12 months.”

Shulkin said that, currently, only 40 percent of veterans have coverage that includes mental health.

“Now, 100 percent will have that coverage,” he said.

The program is worth hundreds of millions of dollars per year, officials said, with the money coming from the Defense and Veterans Affairs budgets.

Focusing on Mental Health Policy Issues

The recent spate of high-profile mass shootings has inspired yet another “national conversation” about mental illness, with everyone agreeing that the country has a problem. Unfortunately, isolated instances of violence are how the subject typically ends up in the news cycle. But the more mundane social repercussions of mental illness, while perhaps not as headline-worthy, are pervasive and acutely felt nonetheless.

On any given day, one in five people in jail or prison has a severe mental illness. This means that people with serious mental illness are ten times more likely to inhabit a jail cell than a hospital bed. Besides contributing to jail and prison over-crowding, mentally ill people are especially vulnerable to victimization by fellow prisoners, spend more time in solitary confinement, and become suicidal behind bars at higher rates than non-mentally ill inmates. They also cost the correctional system considerably more than otherwise healthy prisoners.

The challenge facing prisons is just one consequence of decades of de-institutionalization policies. From a nationwide peak of around 560,000 psychiatric beds in 1955, the census has been whittled down to about 35,000 today — about half of what experts estimate is actually needed. In the absence of such beds, patients will continue to be warehoused behind bars, lie on emergency-room gurneys for days, and languish in nursing homes. One-third of the nations homeless will still be comprised of the untreated mentally ill, who are at far greater risk of being preyed upon than of harming someone else.

The lesson of downsizing state psychiatric facilities — no less powerful for being familiar — is that good intentions are not enough. Too many sick people are now caught in a pernicious cycle, rotating in and out of emergency rooms, crisis hospitalization, incarceration, homelessness, and back again. Its no wonder some of the strongest supporters of mental-health reform are police, district attorneys, corrections officials, and emergency-room physicians.

These problems afflict roughly 10 million Americans, or just over 4% of the population. Mainly diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar (manic-depressive illness), or major depression, such individuals are chronically or periodically unable to care for themselves or are suicidal. At times, they may be dangerous to the public. Relative to other psychiatric patients, those with severe mental illness are far more likely to need medication, intensive supervision, and even involuntary treatment at some point in their lives. But they arent getting the help they need, and the governments good intentions are often the very thing preventing their getting appropriate treatment.

To understand a key source of the problem, we should compare severe mental illness to “mental health.” The Centers for Disease Control describes mental health as a composite of “emotional well-being,” “psychological well-being,” and “social well-being.” According to government statistics, only about 17% of adults are considered to be in a state of optimal mental health — the rest, apparently, need some kind of professional assistance to achieve optimal “wellness.”

Sandwiched between mental health and severe mental illness is a clinical category called mental illness. One recent national survey estimates that nearly 18% of those individuals older than 18, or about 43.7 million people annually, are mentally ill — meaning they fulfill diagnostic criteria for any condition listed in psychiatrys official diagnostic handbook, ranging from attention deficit disorder to panic attacks to anorexia. The severity and chronicity of these conditions varies dramatically, with most conditions resolving on their own, while others are best served with time-limited psychiatric care; some may require hospitalization and long-term medication and therapy.

The distinction between mental health, mental illness, and severe mental illness is crucial, because it leads us to different clinical and policy prescriptions. The vague boundaries of “mental health” enabled a variety of advocates whose true agenda is grievance and social reform to claim that their concerns fell under its rubric, as historian of psychiatry Gerald Grob has observed. As a result, he writes, “persons with serious and persistent mental illnesses…[are] forced to compete, often unsuccessfully, with other groups that now [define] their needs in terms of mental health.”

The problem we have today is that the system is geared more toward mental health than severe mental illness. In fact, the federal governments lead agency on mental health, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, part of the Department of Health and Human Services, has explicitly stated this as its goal. Rather than focusing on reducing homelessness, hospitalization, or incarceration among people with serious mental illness, it concentrates federal and state efforts on delivering amorphous “behavioral health” to everyone else.

This is profoundly misguided. But it may not be surprising after a half-century of inept leadership, Medicaids financial incentives gone awry, and clashing ideas about the nature of the forces (psychological, biological, and social) that lead to psychopathology — and that, in turn, point toward the best possible therapeutic strategies. Ours is a problem-ridden system that could be markedly improved with strong political leadership.

We need a mental-illness system in which care for the sickest of the sick is a priority. If the federal government intends to take mental illness seriously, Congress and the next administration must be keenly responsive to the most vulnerable patients.

a troubled legacy

To understand what should be done, a review of the dynamics that led to the current state of disarray is in order. Four key elements are to blame.

The first emerged in the late 1950s, as officials emptied state hospitals of even the most debilitated patients without adequately planning for their continued treatment. The second contributing factor came with the creation of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965, as new policies limited access to community hospital beds. The third factor is the growing complexity of competing ideas about the causal and remedial factors involved in mental illness, and the resulting complications in policymaking. And fourth is the disproportionate leverage wielded by anti-psychiatry forces in an era of victim politics. This last influence builds upon a longstanding debate regarding the civil liberties of individuals whose capacity to manage their freedom is badly compromised by dysfunction in their brains.

Until half a century ago, the care of people with mental illness had been the responsibility of the states. This changed in 1963 when President John Kennedy ushered in the era of federal support by championing the Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act. The new law mandated the creation of a user-friendly archipelago of 1,500 federally funded community clinics nationwide to supplant the large state asylums and to allow patients to live in their communities while receiving treatment. “When carried out,” Kennedy said of the act, “reliance on the cold mercy of custodial isolation will be supplanted by the open warmth of community concern and capability.” The presidents interest was personal, stemming from the tragic experience of his sister Rosemary, who was born with mild mental retardation and eventually underwent a frontal lobotomy for schizophrenia.

The nation was primed for the change the president sought. Two decades earlier, Life magazine had run “Bedlam 1946,” a searing photo-journalistic exposé of Pennsylvanias Philadelphia State Hospital at Byberry and Ohios Cleveland State Hospital. Books like Albert Deutschs The Shame of the States and popular entertainments like the movie The Snake Pit, both of which appeared in 1948, exposed shocking conditions of filth and abuse in state facilities.

State-initiated efforts improved the conditions at state hospitals in the mid-1950s, and, thanks to the availability of Thorazine, an anti-psychotic medication introduced in 1954, some patients were successfully moved into the community. But with Kennedys community centers under construction in the mid-60s, the campaign to empty out state facilities took on new urgency. Some patients did well upon discharge, but the sickest were caught in a revolving door: Without closely supervised treatment, many failed in the community and went back to whatever institutions were left. Others ended up in a kind of limbo, neither institutionalized nor embedded in a community.

The state-hospital population was further eroded by legal decisions issued in the 1960s and 70s that made it hard for judges to order necessary treatments for patients who were wildly psychotic or immobilized by depression but were refusing care. A convergence of strange bedfellows — fiscally conservative state officials, progressive reformers, former patients, and politically liberal civil-rights lawyers — formed a strong advocacy coalition for deinstitutionalization policies.

In 1965, as the exodus from state hospitals was well underway, Congress passed legislation establishing Medicare and Medicaid. The new law included a provision that unwittingly planted the seeds of the current shortage of public hospital beds. It did so by prohibiting Medicaid from paying for care delivered to patients between the ages of 22 and 64 if that care was provided in an “institution for the treatment of mental diseases,” or IMD. An IMD is defined as a treatment facility with more than 16 beds of which at least half are dedicated to mentally ill patients. The so-called “IMD exclusion” was intended to spur momentum for community treatment by barring the doors to the asylum, which Congress saw more as a warehouse than a treatment facility anyway.

The IMD exclusion did not affect general hospitals and nursing homes. They remained eligible for Medicaid reimbursement. Thus, states had a strong incentive to shift patients from state psychiatric hospitals to Medicaid-eligible institutions, even if those venues were more costly or less effective. With fewer and fewer psychiatric beds available, emergency rooms became holding areas for those who needed inpatient treatment; others spilled out onto the streets and into run-down, questionable boarding houses and jails.

It did not have to be this way, which is clear given how well Medicaid has worked for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. They, too, could be found living in state hospitals in the mid-20th century, but Medicaid treated them differently. If they still needed residential or intermediate care, Medicaid reimbursed the state for their stay. Then when these patients were discharged into the community, Medicaid covered wraparound services such as vocational assessments, family counseling, medication management, and transportation. Today, these services are provided under a “community options” waiver that “swaps” a Medicaid-covered inpatient bed for a similarly covered, community-based slot.

Unfortunately, no such waiver exists for individuals with serious mental illness, because the IMD exclusion prohibits federal coverage for adults. The ensuing problem of fragmented services is formidable. Between orchestrating disability entitlements, housing, and treatment of medical problems, case management can require organizational skills that are beyond most of us, let alone people who are also overwhelmed by depression, difficulty concentrating, or jumbled thoughts. Even when there are quality services covered by Medicaid, such as nursing-home placement, funds are not always tailored to young or middle-aged able-bodied psychiatric patients. Meanwhile, entire subpopulations of poor, young men are not covered at all in many states.

Thus, as Harold Pollack of the School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago explains, “Deinstitutionalization has, on the whole, worked well for the intellectually disabled because they and their supporters could crank the political valves required to make it work. Equally worthy claimants who lacked the same political muscle or public embrace fared much worse. Thats one key lesson of the deinstitutionalization fight.”

The next major step toward our current dysfunctional approach to treating mental illness seems at first glance to have begun with a semantic, rather than a policy, decision. When Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter entered the White House in 1977, they already had an interest in mental illness. President Carter wasted no time in establishing the Commission on Mental Health. According to historian of psychiatry Gerald Grob, “the [commissions] decision in 1977 to use mental health rather than mental illness…was based on the application of a public health model that emphasized the role of the environment, social services, and prevention rather than the traditional psychiatric focus on the diagnosis and treatment of severe and persistent mental disorders.”

The dubious notion that external influences, such as stress, social problems, traumatic experiences, and even coercive psychiatric care itself are the primary causes of severe mental illness still thrives today in influential quarters, as we will see.

the recovery model

A quarter-century after the Carter commission, in 2002, President George W. Bush revisited the problem of public mental-health care by appointing a commission of his own, called the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. The commission was charged with conducting a “comprehensive study” of the existing system and advising President Bush on improvements. The 2003 report issued some positive suggestions regarding, for example, the need for an increased number of psychiatric beds and better programs to help disabled patients participate in the workforce. But the Bush commission, like Carters before it, elided the distinction between mental health and mental illness and failed to grapple with approaches to patients with severe mental illness who refused to take medication and had a potential for violence.

Instead, the Bush commission promoted an overly optimistic treatment philosophy that came to be called the “recovery model.” It held that with sufficient therapy, housing options, and employment programs, patients with schizophrenia or manic-depressive illness would be able to take charge of their lives. To be sure, a lot of patients are indeed able to do this, especially young people with recent onset of illness. But the recovery models unrealistic one-size-fits-all approach ignored the toughest cases, which often require heavy doses of paternalism because the patients dont acknowledge their own illness — a symptom of being psychotic in and of itself, in many instances. In an un-medicated state, an individuals symptoms remain unabated, behavior remains menacing or erratic, and the risk of violence, particularly if alcohol or cocaine is involved, is increased.

The recovery agenda was inspired by the patients rights movement of the 1960s. This campaign for enlightened care, which included better quality of treatment, collaboration with physicians, and assurance of privacy of health information, was a sensible reaction to the heavy strain of paternalism that marked the medical field at one time. Psychiatry, in particular, attracted the animus of patients rights activists; after all, it is a field whose very nature requires professionals to make fraught judgments about the normal or abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and identities of their patients. Whats more, for better or worse, psychiatrists may impose tacit or actual control over their patients.

Consequently, the psychiatric patients rights movement took on a radical tenor. Spurred by a 1960s ethos of social justice, activists saw themselves as a class of social dissidents and psychiatry as an agent of social control. The Insane Liberation Front was founded in 1970 in Portland, Oregon. In 1971, the Mental Patients Liberation Project and the Mental Patients Liberation Front appeared in New York and Boston, respectively. The next year, former patients in San Francisco organized the Network Against Psychiatric Assault and the Madness News Network. They have championed the rights of severely ill patients to refuse treatment, representing the expressed wishes of their clients (patients) even when they are delusional, and they have campaigned against involuntary commitment, as well as electroshock therapy, which is one of the safest and most effective treatments for severe depression. So what do these activists prescribe as an alternative? Political empowerment.

By the 1980s, the movement had spawned a new identity known as the “consumer-survivor,” which persists to this day. In this iteration of the psychiatric patients rights movement, dynamics such as identity politics (with the mentally ill playing the role of minority population), disability status, and a sense of entitlement to public services play a larger role than they did in the 60s and 70s. Compared to their earlier counterparts who saw themselves as dissenters, not patients, these consumer-survivors actually do see themselves as ill. “Consumer” is the politically correct word for patient, and “survivor” refers to one who has survived psychiatric care. The most vocal anti-psychiatry consumer-survivor groups are the National Empowerment Center near Boston and the Nation Mental Health Consumers Self-Help Clearinghouse in southeastern Pennsylvania. Funded in part by the federal government and state mental-health agencies, these groups lobby against involuntary treatment and electroconvulsive therapy, and they discourage patients from taking medication.

As with the anti-vaccine movement, such trends always have the capacity to be damaging, but vocal, misguided fringe groups are not a rare occurrence in the United States, especially when it comes to health care. The difference is that these groups have the financial support of the U.S. government; thus, taxpayer money is being used to make things worse.

failing the most vulnerable

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services known by its acronym, SAMHSA, bolsters the consumer-survivor agenda ideologically, programmatically, and financially. It is a striking example of government working at cross-purposes to the best interests of its most desperate constituents.

The agencys entire budget for mental health is around $1.1 billion. (The remainder of its full budget of $3.6 billion is earmarked for prevention and treatment of substance abuse.) Of the $1.1 billion mental-health budget, $482 million goes into block grants to the states for mental-health services, and the remainder goes to other programs for adults and children, the homeless, and Protection and Advocacy (described further below). Given that federal mental-health expenditures total $130 billion annually, mostly in the form of Medicaid, the SAMHSA budget seems modest. But the agency manages to leverage its funds in ways that not only shortchange but actively undermine the welfare of the sickest patients.

For one thing, SAMHSA claims to receive much of its policy input from groups of consumers that it occasionally convenes. These people may have psychiatric problems but generally need only low-levels of support, and many do not take medication. They do not represent the most impaired patients — the ones who are languishing in jails, in emergency rooms, or on the streets. Such people are too lost in their psychosis to show up for a focus group or to embrace the “recovery agenda.” Indeed, approximately half of all untreated people with a psychotic disorder do not acknowledge they are ill, which is itself a neurological condition called anosognosia.

There is a vital role for benign paternalism toward this highly vulnerable set of patients, but the culture of mental health as practiced by SAMHSA effectively denies their existence, let alone their needs. To be sure, the psychiatric profession was once dismissive and too pessimistic about many people who were indeed capable of greater independence, but there is no denying that now a subset of the mentally ill needs much more oversight and, at times, even benign coercion.

SAMHSAs worldview is reflected in the nature of its discretionary grants and programs, some of which completely undermine the best interests of patients with severe mental illness. For example, the agency is a major funder of groups that are overtly opposed to medically accepted psychiatric care. The National Empowerment Center, based in Lawrence, Massachusetts, is one beneficiary of SAMHSA funds. Its mission is “to carry a message of recovery, empowerment, hope and healing to people with lived experience with mental health issues, trauma, and/or extreme states.” The NECs Chief Operating Officer has been a long-time critic of the use of psychiatric medications.

The Washington, D.C.-based National Coalition for Mental Health Recovery is a trade group for recipients of agency largesse. Its mission is to ensure “consumer/survivors have a major voice in…policies at the state and national levels.” The coalition and its smaller, composite organizations oppose the type of services — civil commitment, increased hospital capacity — that target the most impaired. Another example is the Alternatives Conference, which is funded by SAMHSA each year. Among other things, attendees with mental illness are taught how to go off their psychiatric medications. In 2011, SAMHSA gave one of its annual “Voice Awards” to an activist who believes that “[p]sychiatry is not medical because it is not scientific. It does not diagnose or treat actual conditions. It is complete fiction. Voodoo witch doctors have a better cure rate.”

Apart from awarding grants, SAMHSA runs its own programs, perhaps the most painfully misguided of which is the Protection and Advocacy program. Established by Congress, the original, benign intent of the Protection and Advocacy for Individuals with Mental Illness Act of 1986, or P&A, was to investigate allegations of patient abuse, neglect, and rights violations in hospital wards or in residential facilities. Mission creep soon set in, however. As Rael Jean Isaac and Virginia Armat documented in their 1990 book Madness in the Streets, P&A quickly devolved into “playgrounds for anti-psychiatric activists.”

The P&A program operates with $39 million, distributed among the states. The local P&A agencies routinely flout congressional intent by lobbying state legislatures against adopting sensible treatment policies and against strengthening their civil-commitment laws. Making matters worse, they do so at the expense of conducting investigations into the mistreatment of patients. Amanda Peters of South Texas College of Law has closely examined P&A programs, and has found that their lawyers and personnel are so preoccupied with fighting civil-commitment policies and trying to liberate undeniably psychotic patients from hospitals that glaring violations of abuse and neglect go unchecked.

Many P&A lawyers are against hospitalization at any cost, to sometimes tragic result. Consider the story of Joe Bruce of Caratunk, Maine, whose psychotic son is now a murderer because of Maines P&A agency. In 2006, 24-year-old William Bruce was a patient at Riverview Psychiatric Center, where he had been committed after assaulting his father. His parents were afraid of their son and begged the hospital to medicate him with the antipsychotic that had previously quelled his paranoia and aggression. Williams psychiatrists, who had observed him for weeks as an inpatient, fought against Williams pleas for release because he remained paranoid and agitated. Nonetheless, the P&A legal advocates insisted that William was “competent” for discharge and openly coached him — as any lawyer would his client — on how to placate the doctors so theyd let him go. William and his lawyers somehow prevailed over his doctors and parents objections, and Riverview discharged him. Two months later, he killed his mother with a hatchet. The Bruce familys story is one of the most dramatic, but by no means one of the only, examples of the reckless “liberation” of dangerous or debilitated patients at the hands of a P&A agency.

For decades, HHS and SAMHSA have mismanaged the mental-illness resources of the federal government, focusing increasingly on “recovery agendas” instead of on the severely mentally ill. Our most vulnerable citizens are slipping through the cracks. It is long past time for a better, more serious mental-illness agenda.

prescriptions for mental health

Like Presidents Kennedy, Carter, and Bush, the next president could do a great deal to improve the nations mental-health system. The most radical, most effective approach might be to propose legislation to abolish SAMHSA altogether, holding on to those pieces worth saving, such as the collection of statistics, by assigning them to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Mental Health, or other appropriate government agencies. Charges of abuse (such as excessive use of physical restraints) and neglect could be handled by the Department of Justice. The block grants could be distributed by the Human Resources and Services Administration.

Whether or not SAMHSA is shut down, it is imperative that the next director of federal mental-health initiatives, perhaps working directly out of HHS, be a psychiatrist or psychologist with extensive experience treating and managing systems that target severely and persistently ill patients. (Currently, SAMHSA does not employ a single psychiatrist among its staff of 570, let alone in a leadership or key advisory position.) In 2013, an experienced psychiatrist joined as medical director, but she quit two years later because of what she described as “an open hostility toward psychiatric medicine by those at the helm of the agency. The concept of mental disorders as diseases was rejected.”

A SAMHSA leader who understands the clinical needs of the sickest patients and prioritizes these demands — and who is backed by the secretary of HHS — would instinctively make profound changes. He would cease grant-making to advocacy organizations whose members deliberately undermine the validity of professional help and medications and those who lobby against commitment policies at the state and federal levels. The medical-director slot would be filled by a psychiatrist who endorses mainstream views on the value of medication, the importance of promoting tested programs over a feel-good “wellness” and “empowerment” agenda, and the need for inpatient services. An enlightened agency leader would invest in research aimed at the sickest patients and accept the notion that paternalistic strategies are legitimate and necessary for some of them. Finally, such a leader would contain P&As mission creep and ensure that program funds go solely to the investigation of abuse and neglect, as was the programs original congressional mandate.

Medicaid needs improvements, too. To address the bed shortage, for example, Congress could base eligibility for Medicaid reimbursement solely upon an individuals need for care, rather than upon the location in which it is delivered. Another option is raising the limit on the number of psychiatric beds for which Medicaid will pay, to allow larger facilities already specializing in mental illness to fall outside of the scope of the IMD exclusion. Alternatively, more states could be allowed to use Medicaid Section 1115 waivers — as some already are — to draw down reimbursement for services provided in IMDs. Not surprisingly, some advocates argue against these ideas, concerned that they will re-open the door to institutionalization.

Some policymakers suggest simply expanding the number of psychiatric beds in general hospitals, but economies of scale (a benefit of larger psychiatric institutions) would be lost. Nor would general hospital units be able to reproduce the therapeutic milieu that characterizes a quality inpatient unit. Whats more, general hospitals are reluctant to admit the sickest psychiatric patients, who are often disruptive, sometimes violent, and difficult to treat and require additional nursing.

To inform lawmakers debating this complicated issue, the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is funding the Medicaid Emergency Psychiatric Demonstration, mandated by the Affordable Care Act. Eleven states and the District of Columbia are using Medicaid funds to pay for inpatient emergency psychiatric care in psychiatric hospitals for patients aged 21 to 65 without the 16-bed restriction. By focusing on psychiatric emergencies, the three-year demonstration, which began in 2012, also attempts to explore a potential remedy to alleviate burdens placed on general-hospital emergency rooms by psychiatric patients for whom no bed is available.

Medicaid administrators also need more flexibility to cover the unique kinds of help, beyond standard fee-for-service visits for medication and therapy, which enable mentally ill individuals to thrive in the community. These may include Fountain House-type clubhouses (private, non-profit community centers that provide job training, socialization opportunities, and computer access) and various other types of assistance with staying in school or holding down a job. Assertive Community Treatment teams — intensive 24-hour outpatient supervision by clinical teams linking patients to needed medical and social services — would save money and reduce days in the hospital, but they currently have no reliable source of public funding. The same is true of Forensic Assertive Community Treatment, an adaptation of the ACT model that has been shown to reduce criminal recidivism through criminal-justice collaborations.

The good news is that there is active experimentation. In addition to emergency-room demonstrations now underway, Congress authorized a $1.1 billion, eight-state demonstration program in 2014 for a new type of community-based clinic focused on behavioral health. The Excellence in Mental Health Act, spearheaded by Democratic senator Debbie Stabenow of Michigan and signed into law in April 2014, created criteria for facilities to become “certified community behavioral health clinics.” (In 2016, Stabenow and Republican senator Roy Blunt of Missouri introduced a bill expanding the law to provide additional funding for 24 states to launch a demonstration program to tackle payment reform in behavioral health.)

These clinics are required to provide a wide range of services, such as the kinds provided by ACT teams. States will apply to develop a prospective-payment arrangement with clinics to cover all necessary treatment, a so-called flexible funding stream that supplants service-by-service reimbursement. After two years, these pilot programs may be replicated nationwide. Ultimately, certified clinics will be eligible for Medicaid reimbursement as the sole source of payment for patients.

Flexible funding streams will figure prominently in approaches to treating young people, generally in their late teens and early 20s, who are in the early stages of schizophrenia. Psychiatrists now know that the amount of time between the onset of psychotic symptoms and the beginning of treatment is very important in determining response to care. An especially promising study, Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode, just completed its first wave of trials in the fall of 2015 and attests to the value of aggressive intervention for first-episode psychosis. These data, derived from research funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health, show that a tightly coordinated team approach, including the patient, professionals, and family members, led to greater symptom control and more involvement in work and school than experienced by patients receiving treatment as usual. The team provides medication (at the lowest dose necessary), therapy for coping with stress, education for loved ones about the disease, supported employment or education for the patient once symptoms are under control, and personalized case management. Currently, these teams are in the research stage, but when they become standard practice, payment systems will need to accommodate wrap-around services en bloc instead of traditional fee-for-service arrangements.

Some additional relief has come with the Affordable Care Act of 2010, which included a provision to expand Medicaid. Currently, 31 states plus the District of Columbia have opted in to the Medicaid expansion, which means the federal government — rather than those states — will pay for the great bulk of the outpatient and hospital treatment of newly qualified low-income people. This has the potential to help individuals who are mentally ill or in the early stages of serious illness, especially young men, who are not yet designated disabled. (The IMD exclusion remains in place.) The laws requirement that young adults up to age 26 be able to stay on their parents insurance plans is also helpful in this regard, as it preserves access to psychiatric care right at the moment some will first be developing psychosis.

These encouraging developments are tempered, unfortunately, by a looming crisis in public-sector psychiatry, especially in inner-city and rural areas and especially for patients on Medicaid. While the number of all physicians in the United States rose by 45% from 1995 to today, the number of psychiatrists increased by only 12% — and over half are aged 55 or older and will soon retire. Medical students choosing the field of psychiatry are fewer in number than in decades past, in part because many graduates face huge debt burdens, and psychiatry is among the lowest-paid of the medical specialties — especially in clinics and public hospitals where psychiatrists are needed the most.

benign paternalism versus jail time

Even if these reforms were successfully undertaken and the mentally ill were granted broader access to care, however, it would not be enough to ensure that the sickest individuals received the care they needed. One of the hallmarks of severe mental illness is that patients often deny that anything is wrong with them. So for many patients with severe mental illness, a strong dose of paternalism is often required to keep them from descending further into psychosis, self-neglect, and disruptive behavior, which can range from public disturbance or destruction of property to outright violence.

Assisted outpatient treatment, or AOT, a cost-saving and effective form of civil-court-ordered community treatment, is aimed at individuals who have a well-established pattern of falling into a spiral of self-neglect, self-harm, or dangerousness when off medication. AOT allows judges to order these individuals into mandated and monitored treatment while they continue to live in the community. In some states, violation of the court-ordered conditions can result in the individual being hospitalized for further treatment. According to a review of studies by the Virginia-based Treatment Advocacy Center, AOT has reliably reduced homelessness, re-arrest, incarceration, hospitalization, and suicide by half to 74%, thereby cutting long-term health-care costs in half.

The main problem with AOT is that it is too rarely used. Forty-five states permit the use of AOT, also called “outpatient commitment,” but, due to a lack of funding and unfamiliarity with the AOT process or philosophy (which is constantly denounced by activist “consumers” in state houses), it is not applied as robustly as it should be.

In addition to AOT, which is a civil remedy, entities known as Mental Health Courts exist for those charged with criminal offenses. These courts embrace a therapeutic rather than a punitive approach, but use the power of the court to enforce ordered treatment. Defendants who agree to participate receive a treatment plan and other community-supervision conditions. Those who adhere to their treatment plan for the agreed-upon period of time see either their cases dismissed or their sentences greatly reduced. If the defendant does not comply with the conditions of the court, or decides to leave the program, his case returns to the original criminal calendar where prosecution proceeds as normal.

As a rule, most Mental Health Courts use a variety of intermediate sanctions in response to non-compliance before ending a defendants participation. At present, there is only a modest number of courts, but a 2012 Urban Institute evaluation yielded promising results: Participants in two New York City Mental Health Courts were significantly less likely to re-offend than similar offenders whose cases were handled in the traditional court system.

Law enforcement has a large role to play as well. Increasingly, emergency 911 calls for “mental disturbance” are being met by law-enforcement officials who have received crisis intervention training, or CIT. Not only do they learn how to defuse tense, potentially violent situations, but police are also taught to distinguish criminal acts from erratic behaviors due to psychosis. The first CIT program was established in Memphis in 1988, after a police officer shot a man with a serious mental illness. The program came to be known as the “Memphis Model,” and it is now a popular, 40-hour curriculum, developed in collaboration with local academics, family members of ill individuals, and the Memphis police department. It teaches police how to respond safely to a person in crisis, and includes information about the local mental-health system and laws, and about how to recognize mental illness and link people with appropriate treatment, as well as guidelines for interacting with disturbed people who are extremely agitated or aggressive. CIT can reduce arrests, injuries to police, and the need for SWAT intervention. Unfortunately, however, fewer than 20% of law-enforcement agencies train their officers, according to the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, an advocacy group representing concerned family members.

Finally, individuals who are dangerous to others, suicidal, or unable to care for themselves may need to be hospitalized, regardless of their cooperation. Coerced care has long been a fraught issue. It pits an individuals liberty against societys safety. It also creates a tension between an ill persons “freedom” to act afoul of his own best interests and his potential to benefit from therapeutic intervention. Each case requires courts and lawyers to balance these interests as fairly and delicately as possible. The majority of states have a “grave disability” standard, an explicit and broad designation that focuses on a persons ability to feed, clothe, and protect himself. But the freedom to be psychotic and endangered is not a meaningful freedom at all. More states should adopt the “need for treatment” standard. This approach, which is in effect in about half the states, allows a court to intervene in a crisis. These standards are particularly relevant for individuals who lack insight into their illnesses.

These approaches — AOT, Mental Health Courts, crisis-trained law enforcement, and sensible commitment laws — can help divert mentally ill people from the correctional system. Though states determine their own investments in these options, the federal government could incentivize their use through extra resources or tie block-grant funding to the existence and smooth operation of AOT laws, Mental Health Courts, and need-for-treatment statutes.

the politics of mental-illness reform

Some of these solutions are currently under consideration on Capitol Hill, and constructive changes may be afoot. The furthest-reaching of the proposed mental-health bills introduced in the 114th Congress is the bipartisan Helping Families in Mental Health Crisis Act of 2015, championed by Pennsylvania congressman Tim Murphy, a child psychologist, and Texas congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, a former psychiatric nurse. The cornerstone of the bill is new executive leadership in the form of an assistant secretary for Mental Health and Substance Abuse; this individual would be appointed by the secretary of HHS and subject to Senate confirmation. Funding and authority over SAMHSA would be brought under the assistant secretary who would be required to focus on both severe mental illness — thereby ensuring that adequate resources are targeted at reducing homelessness, arrest, incarceration, hospitalization, suicide, and violence among people with untreated illness — and coordinating the federal governments larger response.

The Murphy-Johnson bill would also rein in the Protection and Advocacy program, mandating an exclusive focus on safeguarding patients rights to be free from abuse and neglect. It also forbids P&A offices from lobbying federal, state, or local governmental entities and prohibits their efforts to secure discharge of patients “with a serious mental illness who [lack] insight into their condition on refusing medical treatment.” In addition, the bill encourages states to develop assisted outpatient treatment capacity and provides a financial bonus when they set up such programs. Murphy-Johnson also clarifies mental-health information privacy standards under the long-contested Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, known as “HIPAA,” so that medical personnel can communicate in detail with patients families in emergency situations.

Further, the legislation mandates that Medicaid cover inpatient care, no matter a facilitys bed count, as long as that facility or hospital has an average length of stay of fewer than 30 days. It also allows a Medicaid patient to visit more than one health-care provider in a given day, a boon for coordinated care. Notably, Murphy-Johnson increases the demonstration authority regarding “certified community behavioral health clinics” from eight states to 10 states and lengthens the time frame from two years to four years. The legislation also expands training and educational opportunities to ensure a sufficient number of providers.

The Murphy-Johnson bill has garnered considerable bipartisan support, and a similar companion bill has been introduced in the Senate, co-sponsored by Senators Chris Murphy and Bill Cassidy. But the legislation has met resistance on several fronts. The first stumbling blocks are basic legislative barriers such as the anticipated cost of the bill, crowded committee and floor schedules, and the fact that the bill falls into several different committee jurisdictions. As of mid-February, the Murphy-Johnson bill was wending its way through the House, having been marked up by the Health Subcommittee of the Energy and Commerce Committee.

Second, advocacy groups that receive funding from SAMHSA are protesting because their financial lifeblood is being threatened. More broadly, the mental-health consumer lobby fears that the bills provisions to increase bed space, strengthen commitment laws, and restrict the advocacy system will effectively send patients back to the asylum. According to the National Coalition for Mental Health Recovery — the trade organization representing SAMHSA-funded anti-psychiatry groups — the Murphy-Johnson bill “will set back community mental health care and undermine much of what our movement has worked so hard to achieve.”

Third, despite broad bipartisan support — 185 co-sponsors as of this writing — a cohort of Democrats has lined up against Murphy-Johnson. In a letter to the chairmen of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, the lawmakers expressed their “strong” opposition to elements of the bill that, they claim, “would restrict patients civil rights.” They refer specifically to the privacy-rule clarification (which supposedly “discriminates” against people with mental illness because no other medical conditions are singled out for special privacy considerations). The opponents decry AOT as being too restrictive because it targets patients who are not in immediate danger — the strict commitment standard they endorse — rather than merely at great risk of harm to self or others when untreated. They also reject the proposed limits on the activities of the Protection and Advocacy agencies.

Fourth, the recent, high-profile shootings in Roanoke, Virginia, and Roseburg, Oregon, have jeopardized prospects for mental-health reform. The incidents re-ignited the simmering tension between political parties as to whether such violence is more aptly attributable to the availability of high-powered guns or to the broken mental-health system, whose many fault lines allow ill people who are armed to slip into classrooms, movie theaters, and college campuses. This has resulted in a stalemate: Democrats refuse to move on mental-health legislation because Republicans refuse to pass gun-control legislation.

Some have tried to find common ground, though. Last fall, Republican senator John Cornyn promoted his NRA-endorsed Mental Health and Safe Communities Act of 2015, which tried to achieve consensus by revising the background-check system to help keep guns out of the hands of the mentally ill. But the measure falls far short of what Democrats have labeled “common-sense gun-control policies,” and so the legislation is likely to go nowhere. More encouraging, Democratic senator Al Franken’s measure that provides crisis-intervention training, funding for mental-health courts, veterans-treatment courts, and training for state and federal law-enforcement officers was approved by the Senate. And the omnibus bill passed last December provides funding for assisted outpatient treatment programs, the first time Congress has fully funded these programs. (Notably, separate grants for the same kind of AOT programs remain a major stumbling block in the debate over Representative Tim Murphys mental-health legislation in the House.) Finally, in early January, President Obama announced $500 million for expanding access to mental-health treatment as part of a series of executive actions aimed at curbing gun violence, but did not elaborate on how it would be spent.

treating the american psychosis

The right reforms can reduce the suffering of people with serious mental illness — and can protect them and improve their quality of life. That prescription entails forging better connections between institutions, and providing more quality care and community support and more psychiatric beds. We should not be afraid of creating benign asylums, especially residential psychiatric entities — ideally situated in rural areas so that patients can tend to animals and farms — that are true to the spirit of asylum: places of respite and safety. We should practice humane paternalism when needed.

This last point poses the greatest challenge to creating a system that is fully responsive to the needs of the sickest patients — that small fraction of people with severe mental illness who often require containment or intensive supervision against their will for brief periods of time and sometimes for long stretches. Some cast such intervention as an inexcusable encroachment on personal freedom. But when a persons thinking is warped by hallucination or delusion, he is not able to exercise meaningful freedom and might even endanger himself or others. The very point of involuntary intervention is to improve or restore the patients power of self-determination. Failure to recognize the need for this kind of action amounts to a refusal to face clinical reality.

What is the treatment for this American Psychosis, as it has been called? In the short term, we need more evidence that paternalistic strategies can be used humanely to produce positive results. The more effective they are, the more receptive localities will become to their use. Creating tighter community safety nets and opening up more beds will make these intrusive tactics less necessary in the first place, but the need will probably never disappear — precisely because a common feature of chronic psychosis is a lack of insight into one’s own impairment. Hopefully, over the long term, we might be able to narrow the pipeline of pathology by intervening when early signs of illness appear.

We must get rid of the distractions. We should not use government largesse to bolster opponents of benign paternalism. And we must not pit guns against patients. These are separate issues, each worthy of serious attention. Mental-health reform needs all the champions it can get. Strong political leadership could make a world of difference.

Sally Satel is a psychiatrist and a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.

E. Fuller Torrey is a psychiatrist and founder of the Treatment Advocacy Center, a non-profit working to eliminate barriers to treatment for people with severe mental illnesses.

Facing: Tragedy in Las Vegas at Mandalay Bay

Griffin Ambitions Ltd.  joins the rest of our nation in a collective state of disbelief and heartache as we learn the details of the shooting massacre that took place last night at a music festival in Las Vegas.
So many innocent lives were taken in this heinous crime. We extend our deepest sympathies to the families, loved ones, friends and communities of the victims who were injured or perished during this tragedy. You don’t need to personally know a victim or live in Las Vegas to feel the impact of this horrific event. With the relentless media coverage, it is understandable that any of us might feel emotionally connected to the events.
In the aftermath of a mass shooting tragedy, it’s normal to feel sadness, anxiety, fear, anger or any mix of these emotions. We encourage people to reach out to family, friends or counselors to express their feelings and explore effective and healthy ways to cope with their emotions. In the next few days and weeks, it will be important to look out for each other – be particularly aware of warning signs that someone is feeling hopeless or acute distress. The signs could include withdrawing and isolating oneself, not sleeping or sleeping all the time, increased use of drugs or alcohol and talking about death or dying.
If you or someone you know is experiencing signs of distress, please reach out to a mental health professional or get anonymous, free support by texting START to Crisis Text Line at 741-741 or by contacting the National Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 (TALK).
At a time like this, the simple things will help – don’t hold feelings in, talk to friends, family and loved ones. Turn off the TV, computer and phone. Get up and get out – tragedies can weigh so heavily on us that it makes it hard to move. Take a walk, go to the gym, run errands, spend time with friends, volunteer to help. And lastly, everyone should take care of themselves and those around them – physical health and emotional connectedness can go a long way toward making you feel like yourself again.
The Griffin Ambitions family of mental health priorities shall continue to embrace the community ideals that make humanity marvelous – connectedness, inclusion, diversity, acceptance, and compassion – it is our hope that these ideals provide the template for healing. Love is louder than violence, hate and pain.

Be well,

JMG